Modification of magnetohydrodynamic waves by the relativistic Hall effect [CL]

This study shows that a relativistic Hall effect significantly changes the properties of wave propagation by deriving a linear dispersion relation for relativistic Hall magnetohydrodynamics (HMHD). Whereas, in non- relativistic HMHD, the phase and group velocities of fast magnetosonic wave become anisotropic with an increasing Hall effect, the relativistic Hall effect brings upper bounds to the anisotropies. The Alfve\'{e}n wave group velocity with strong Hall effect also becomes less anisotropic than non-relativistic case. Moreover, the group velocity surfaces of Alfv\'{e}n and fast waves coalesce into a single surface in the direction other than near perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. It is also remarkable that a characteristic scale length of the relativistic HMHD depends on ion temperature, magnetic field strength, and density while the non-relativistic HMHD scale length, i.e., ion skin depth, depends only on density. The modified characteristic scale length increases as the ion temperature increases and decreases as the magnetic field strength increases.

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Y. Kawazura
Fri, 23 Jun 17

Comments: N/A

Energy transfer in compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence [CL]

Magnetic fields, compressibility and turbulence are important factors in many terrestrial and astrophysical processes. While energy dynamics, i.e. how energy is transferred within and between kinetic and magnetic reservoirs, has been previously studied in the context of incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, we extend shell-to-shell energy transfer analysis to the compressible regime. We derive four new transfer functions specifically capturing compressibility effects in the kinetic and magnetic cascade, and capturing energy exchange via magnetic pressure. To illustrate their viability, we perform and analyze four simulations of driven MHD turbulence in the sub- and supersonic regime with two different codes. On the one hand, our analysis reveals robust characteristics across regime and numerical method, e.g. a weak local energy exchange via magnetic tension. On the other hand, we show that certain functions, e.g. the compressive component of the magnetic energy cascade, exhibit a more complex behavior. Having established a basis for the analysis in the compressible regime, the method can now be applied to study a broader parameter space.

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P. Grete, B. OShea, K. Beckwith, et. al.
Wed, 21 Jun 17

Comments: 16 pages, 8 figures, under review at Physics of Plasmas , comments welcome

Propagation of Solar Energetic Particles in Three-dimensional Interplanetary Magnetic Fields: Radial Dependence of Peak Intensities [CL]

A functional form I_{max}(R)=kR^{-\alpha}, where R is the radial distance of spacecraft, was usually used to model the radial dependence of peak intensities I_{max}(R) of solar energetic particles (SEPs). In this work, the five-dimensional Fokker-Planck transport equation incorporating perpendicular diffusion is numerically solved to investigate the radial dependence of SEP peak intensities. We consider two different scenarios for the distribution of spacecraft fleet: (1) along the radial direction line, (2) along the Parker magnetic field line. We find that the index \alpha in the above expression varies in a wide range, primarily depending on the properties (e.g., location, coverage) of SEP sources and on the longitudinal/latitudinal separations between the sources and the magnetic footpoints of the observers. Particularly, the situation that whether the magnetic footpoint of the observer is located inside or outside of the SEP source is a crucial factor determining the values of index \alpha. A two-phase phenomenon is found in the radial dependence of peak intensities. The “position” of the breakpoint (transition point/critical point) is determined by the magnetic connection status of the observers. This finding suggests that a very careful examination of magnetic connection between SEP source and each spacecraft should be taken in the observational studies. We obtain a lower limit of R^{-1.7\pm0.1} for empirically modelling the radial dependence of SEP peak intensities. Our findings in this work can be used to explain the majority of the previous multispacecraft survey results, and especially to reconcile the different/conflicting empirical values of index \alpha in the literature.

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H. He, G. Zhou and W. Wan
Tue, 20 Jun 17

Comments: Published in ApJ

Resonant drag instability of grains streaming in fluids [EPA]

It is shown that grains streaming through a fluid are generically unstable if their velocity, projected along some direction, matches the phase velocity of a fluid wave. This can occur whenever grains stream faster than a fluid wave. The wave itself can be quite general–sound waves, magnetosonic waves, epicyclic oscillations, and Brunt-V\”ais\”al\”a oscillations each generate instabilities, for example. A simple expression for this “resonant drag instability” (RDI) growth rate is derived. This expression (i) illustrates why such instabilities are so virulent and generic, and (ii) allows for simple analytic computation of RDI growth rates and properties for different fluid systems. As examples, we introduce several new instabilities, which could see application across a variety of astrophysical systems from protoplanetary disks to galactic outflows.

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J. Squire and P. Hopkins
Mon, 19 Jun 17

Comments: N/A

Electron plasma wake field acceleration in solar coronal and chromospheric plasmas [SSA]

Three dimensional, particle-in-cell, fully electromagnetic simulations of electron plasma wake field acceleration applicable to solar atmosphere are presented. It is established that injecting driving and trailing electron bunches into solar coronal and chromospheric plasmas, results in electric fields ($-(20-5) \times 10^{6}$ V/m), leading to acceleration of the trailing bunch up to 52 MeV, starting from initial 36 MeV. The results provide one of potentially important mechanisms for the extreme energetic solar flare electrons, invoking plasma wake field acceleration.

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D. Tsiklauri
Mon, 19 Jun 17

Comments: accepted for publication in Phys. Plasmas (July 2017 issue) arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1606.00367

Statistical properties of coronal hole rotation rates: Are they linked to the solar interior? [SSA]

The present paper discusses results of a statistical study of the characteristics of coronal hole (CH) rotation in order to find connections to the internal rotation of the Sun. The goal is to measure CH rotation rates and study their distribution over latitude and their area sizes. In addition, the CH rotation rates are compared with the solar photospheric and inner layer rotational profiles. We study coronal holes observed within $\pm 60$ latitude and longitude degrees from the solar disc centre during the time span from the 1 January 2013 to 20 April 2015, which includes the extended peak of solar cycle 24.We used data created by the Spatial Possibilistic Clustering Algorithm (SPoCA), which provides the exact location and characterisation of solar coronal holes using SDO=AIA 193 {\AA} channel images. The CH rotation rates are measured with four-hour cadence data to track variable positions of the CH geometric centre. North-south asymmetry was found in the distribution of coronal holes: about 60 percent were observed in the northern hemisphere and 40 percent were observed in the southern hemisphere. The smallest and largest CHs were present only at high latitudes. The average sidereal rotation rate for 540 examined CHs is $13:86 (\pm 0:05)$ degrees/d. Conclusions. The latitudinal characteristics of CH rotation do not match any known photospheric rotation profile. The CH angular velocities exceed the photospheric angular velocities at latitudes higher than 35-40 degrees. According to our results, the CH rotation profile perfectly coincides with tachocline and the lower layers of convection zone at around 0.71 $R_{\odot}$; this indicates that CHs may be linked to the solar global magnetic field, which originates in the tachocline region.

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S. Bagashvili, B. Shergelashvili, D. Japaridze, et. al.
Thu, 15 Jun 17

Comments: 8 pages, 8 figures, Accepted for publication in A&A

Inelastic e+Mg collision data and its impact on modelling stellar and supernova spectra [IMA]

Results of calculations for inelastic e+Mg effective collision strengths for the lowest 25 physical states of Mg I (up to 3s6p 1P), and thus 300 transitions, from the convergent close-coupling (CCC) and the B-spline R-matrix (BSR) methods are presented. At temperatures of interest, ~5000 K, the results of the two calculations differ on average by only 4%, with a scatter of 27%. As the methods are independent, this suggests that the calculations provide datasets for e+Mg collisions accurate to this level. Comparison with the commonly used dataset compiled by Mauas et al. (1988), covering 25 transitions among 12 states, suggests the Mauas et al. data are on average ~57% too low, and with a very large scatter of a factor of ~6.5. In particular the collision strength for the transition corresponding to the Mg I intercombination line at 457 nm is significantly underestimated by Mauas et al., which has consequences for models that employ this dataset. In giant stars the new data leads to a stronger line compared to previous non-LTE calculations, and thus a reduction in the non-LTE abundance correction by ~0.1 dex (~25%). A non-LTE calculation in a supernova ejecta model shows this line becomes significantly stronger, by a factor of around two, alleviating the discrepancy where the 457 nm line in typical models with Mg/O ratios close to solar tended to be too weak compared to observations.

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P. Barklem, Y. Osorio, D. Fursa, et. al.
Tue, 13 Jun 17

Comments: Accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics