Characterization of methanol as a magnetic field tracer in star-forming regions [GA]

Magnetic fields play an important role during star formation. Direct magnetic field strength observations have proven specifically challenging in the extremely dynamic protostellar phase. Because of their occurrence in the densest parts of star forming regions, masers, through polarization observations, are the main source of magnetic field strength and morphology measurements around protostars. Of all maser species, methanol is one of the strongest and most abundant tracers of gas around high-mass protostellar disks and in outflows. However, as experimental determination of the magnetic characteristics of methanol has remained largely unsuccessful, a robust magnetic field strength analysis of these regions could hitherto not be performed. Here we report a quantitative theoretical model of the magnetic properties of methanol, including the complicated hyperfine structure that results from its internal rotation. We show that the large range in values of the Land\'{e} g-factors of the hyperfine components of each maser line lead to conclusions which differ substantially from the current interpretation based on a single effective g-factor. These conclusions are more consistent with other observations and confirm the presence of dynamically important magnetic fields around protostars. Additionally, our calculations show that (non-linear) Zeeman effects must be taken into account to further enhance the accuracy of cosmological electron-to-proton mass ratio determinations using methanol.

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B. Lankhaar, W. Vlemmings, G. Surcis, et. al.
Mon, 19 Feb 18

Comments: 23 pages, 3 figures, excluding Supplementary information. Author manuscript version before editorial/copyediting by Nature Astronomy. Journal version available via this http URL . Supplementary material available via this https URL

AD Leonis: Radial velocity signal of stellar rotation or spin-orbit resonance? [EPA]

AD Leonis is a nearby magnetically active M dwarf. We find Doppler variability with a period of 2.23 days as well as photometric signals: (1) a short period signal which is similar to the radial velocity signal albeit with considerable variability; and (2) a long term activity cycle of 4070$\pm$120 days. We examine the short-term photometric signal in the available ASAS and MOST photometry and find that the signal is not consistently present and varies considerably as a function of time. This signal undergoes a phase change of roughly 0.8 rad when considering the first and second halves of the MOST data set which are separated in median time by 3.38 days. In contrast, the Doppler signal is stable in the combined HARPS and HIRES radial velocities for over 4700 days and does not appear to vary in time in amplitude, phase, period or as a function of extracted wavelength. We consider a variety of star-spot scenarios and find it challenging to simultaneously explain the rapidly varying photometric signal and the stable radial velocity signal as being caused by starspots co-rotating on the stellar surface. This suggests that the origin of the Doppler periodicity might be the gravitational tug of a planet orbiting the star in spin-orbit resonance. For such a scenario and no spin-orbit misalignment, the measured $v \sin i$ indicates an inclination angle of 15.5$\pm$2.5 deg and a planetary companion mass of 0.237$\pm$0.047 M$_{\rm Jup}$.

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M. Tuomi, H. Jones, G. Anglada-Escude, et. al.
Mon, 19 Feb 18

Comments: 19 pages (incl. example data tables), accepted for publication in AJ

Impacts of nuclear-physics uncertainties in the s-process determined by Monte-Carlo variations [SSA]

The s-process, a production mechanism based on slow-neutron capture during stellar evolution, is the origin of about half the elements heavier than iron. Abundance predictions for s-process nucleosynthesis depend strongly on the relevant neutron-capture and $\beta$-decay rates, as well as on the details of the stellar model being considered. Here, we have used a Monte-Carlo approach to evaluate the nuclear uncertainty in s-process nucleosynthesis. We considered the helium burning of massive stars for the weak s-process and low-mass asymptotic-giant-branch stars for the main s-process. Our calculations include a realistic and general prescription for the temperature dependent uncertainty for the reaction cross sections. We find that the adopted uncertainty for (${\rm n},\gamma$) rates, tens of per cent on average, effects the production of s-process nuclei along the line of $\beta$-stability, and that the uncertainties in $\beta$-decay from excited state contributions, has the strongest impact on branching points.

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N. Nishimura, G. Cescutti, R. Hirschi, et. al.
Mon, 19 Feb 18

Comments: 6 pages, 4 figures, 2 tables, the Proceedings of “the 2017 Symposium on Nuclear Data”; a supplementary article of arXiv:1701.00489

Beryllium detection in the very fast nova ASASSN-16kt (V407 Lupi) [SSA]

We present high-resolution spectroscopic observations of the fast nova ASASSN-16kt (V407 Lup). A close inspection of spectra obtained at early stages has revealed the presence of low-ionization lines, and among the others we have identified the presence of the ionised $^7$Be doublet in a region relatively free from possible contaminants. After studying their intensities, we have inferred that ASASSN-16kt has produced (5.9 – 7.7)$ \times 10^{-9}$ M${\odot}$ of $^7$Be. The identification of bright Ne lines may suggest that the nova progenitor is a massive (1.2 M${\odot}$) oxygen-neon white dwarf. The high outburst frequency of oxygen-neon novae implies that they likely produce an amount of Be similar, if not larger, to that produced by carbon-oxygen novae, then confirming that classical novae are among the main factories of lithium in the Galaxy.

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L. Izzo, P. Molaro, P. Bonifacio, et. al.
Mon, 19 Feb 18

Comments: 11 pages, 8 figures, 4 tables. Accepted for publication in MNRAS

Secular dynamics of hierarchical multiple systems composed of nested binaries, with an arbitrary number of bodies and arbitrary hierarchical structure. II. External perturbations: flybys and supernovae [SSA]

We extend the formalism of a previous paper to include the effects of flybys and instantaneous perturbations such as supernovae on the long-term secular evolution of hierarchical multiple systems with an arbitrary number of bodies and hierarchy, provided that the system is composed of nested binary orbits. To model secular encounters, we expand the Hamiltonian in terms of the ratio of the separation of the perturber with respect to the barycentre of the multiple system, to the separation of the widest orbit. Subsequently, we integrate over the perturber orbit numerically or analytically. We verify our method for secular encounters, and illustrate it with an example. Furthermore, we describe a method to compute instantaneous orbital changes to multiple systems, such as asymmetric supernovae and impulsive encounters. The secular code, with implementation of the extensions described in this paper, is publicly available within AMUSE, and we provide a number of simple example scripts to illustrate its usage for secular and impulsive encounters, and asymmetric supernovae. The extensions presented in this paper are a next step toward efficiently modeling the evolution of complex multiple systems embedded in star clusters.

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A. Hamers
Mon, 19 Feb 18

Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS. 24 pages, 7 figures

Sensitivity to neutron captures and beta-decays of the enhanced s-process in rotating massive stars at low metallicities [SSA]

The s-process in massive stars, producing nuclei up to $A\approx 90$, has a different behaviour at low metallicity if stellar rotation is significant. This enhanced s-process is distinct from the s-process in massive stars around solar metallicity, and details of the nucleosynthesis are poorly known. We investigated nuclear physics uncertainties in the enhanced s-process in metal-poor stars within a Monte-Carlo framework. We applied temperature-dependent uncertainties of reaction rates, distinguishing contributions from the ground state and from excited states. We found that the final abundance of several isotopes shows uncertainties larger than a factor of 2, mostly due to the neutron capture uncertainties. A few nuclei around branching points are affected by uncertainties in the $\beta$-decay.

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N. Nishimura, R. Hirschi and T. Rauscher
Mon, 19 Feb 18

Comments: 3 pages, 3 figures, published in the Proceedings of “Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics Conference (NPA VII)”; see arXiv:1701.00489, for the completed results

An extremely red and two other nearby L dwarf candidates previously overlooked in 2MASS, WISE, and other surveys [SSA]

We present three new nearby L dwarf candidates, found in a continued combined color/proper motion search using WISE, 2MASS, and other survey data, where we included extended WISE sources and looked closer to the Galactic plane region. Their spectral types and distances were estimated from photometric comparisons to well-known L dwarfs with trigonometric parallaxes. The first object, 2MASS J07555430-3259589, is an extremely red L7.5p dwarf candidate at a photometric distance of about 16 pc. Its position, proper motion and distance are consistent with membership in the Carina-Near young moving group. The second one, 2MASS J07414279-0506464, is resolved in Gaia DR1 as a close binary (separation 0.3 arcsec), and we classify it as a equal-mass binary candidate consisting of two L5 dwarfs at 19 pc. Our nearest new neighbor, 2MASS J19251275+0700362, is an L7 dwarf candidate at 10 pc.

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R. Scholz and C. Bell
Mon, 19 Feb 18

Comments: 2 pages, 1 table, accepted by RNAAS (abstract not included in original paper)