A Multiple Ejecta-Circumstellar Medium Interaction Model and Its Implications for Superluminous Supernovae iPTF15esb and iPTF13dcc [HEAP]


In this paper, we investigate two hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) iPTF15esb and iPTF13dcc whose light curves (LCs) show significant deviation from the smooth rise and fall. The LC of iPTF15esb exhibits two peaks and a post-peak plateau, and furthermore the late-time spectrum of iPTF15esb shows a strong, broad H$\alpha$ emission line. The early-time LC of iPTF13dcc shows a long duration bump followed by the second peak. Here we propose an ejecta-circumstellar medium (CSM) interaction model involving multiple shells/winds and use it to explain the LCs of iPTF15esb and iPTF13dcc. We find that the theoretical LCs reproduced by this model can well match the observations of iPTF15esb and iPTF13dcc. Based on our results, we infer that the progenitors have undergone multiple violent mass-loss processes before the SN explosion. In addition, we find that the variation trend of our inferred densities of the shells is consistent with that predicted by the stellar mass-loss history before an SN explosion. Further investigations for other bumpy SLSNe/SNe would shed light on their nature and provide a probe for the mass-loss history of their progenitors.

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L. Liu, L. Wang, S. Wang, et. al.
Fri, 23 Feb 18

Comments: 20 pages, 4 figures, 2 tables, accepted for publication in ApJ. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1706.01783

The Gemini/HST galaxy cluster project: Redshift 0.2-1.0 cluster sample, X-ray data and optical photometry catalog [GA]


The Gemini/HST Galaxy Cluster Project (GCP) covers 14 z=0.2-1.0 clusters with X-ray luminosity of L_500 >= 10^44 ergs/s in the 0.1-2.4 keV band. In this paper we provide homogeneously calibrated X-ray luminosities, masses and radii, and we present the complete catalog of the ground-based photometry for the GCP clusters. The clusters were observed with Gemini North or South in three or four of the optical passbands g’, r’, i’ and z’. The photometric catalog includes consistently calibrated total magnitudes, colors, and geometrical parameters. The photometry reaches ~25 mag in the passband closest to rest frame B-band. We summarize comparisons of our photometry with data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We describe the sample selection for our spectroscopic observations, and establish the calibrations to obtain rest frame magnitudes and colors. Finally, we derive the color-magnitude relations for the clusters and briefly discuss these in the context of evolution with redshift. Consistent with our results based on spectroscopic data, the color-magnitude relations support passive evolution of the red-sequence galaxies. The absence of change in the slope with redshift, constrains the allowable age variation along the red sequence to <0.05 dex between the brightest cluster galaxies and those four magnitudes fainter. The paper serves as the main reference for the GCP cluster and galaxy selection, X-ray data and ground-based photometry.

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I. Jorgensen, K. Chiboucas, P. Hibon, et. al.
Fri, 23 Feb 18

Comments: Accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journal Supplement. High resolution figures available from the first author. Machine readable version of Table 12 available from the first author

Single-pulse observations of the Galactic Center magnetar PSR J1745$-$2900 at 3.1 GHz [HEAP]


We report on single-pulse observations of the Galactic Center magnetar PSR J1745$-$2900 that were made using the Parkes 64-m radio telescope with a central frequency of 3.1 GHz at five observing epochs between 2013 July and August. The shape of the integrated pulse profiles was relatively stable across the five observations, indicating that the pulsar was in a stable state between MJDs 56475 and 56514. This extends the known stable state of this pulsar to 6.8 months. Short term pulse shape variations were also detected. It is shown that this pulsar switches between two emission modes frequently and that the typical duration of each mode is about ten minutes. No giant pulses or subpulse drifting were observed. Apparent nulls in the pulse emission were detected on MJD 56500. Although there are many differences between the radio emission of magnetars and normal radio pulsars, they also share some properties. The detection of mode changing and pulse nulling in PSR J1745$-$2900 suggests that the basic radio emission process for magnetars and normal pulsars is the same.

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W. Yan, N. Wang, R. Manchester, et. al.
Fri, 23 Feb 18

Comments: 11 pages, 16 figures, 1 table, accepted by MNRAS

An outflow in the Seyfert ESO 362-G18 revealed by Gemini-GMOS/IFU Observations [GA]


We present two-dimensional stellar and gaseous kinematics of the inner 0.7 $\times$ 1.2 kpc$^{2}$ of the Seyfert galaxy ESO 362-G18, derived from optical spectra obtained with the GMOS/IFU on the Gemini South telescope at a spatial resolution of $\approx$170 pc and spectral resolution of 36 km s$^{-1}$. ESO 362-G18 is a strongly perturbed galaxy of morphological type Sa or S0/a, with a minor merger approaching along the NE direction. Previous studies have shown that the [O\,{\sc iii}] emission shows a fan-shaped extension of $\approx$ 10\arcsec\ to the SE. We detect the [O\,{\sc iii}] doublet, [N\,{\sc ii}] and H${\alpha}$ emission lines throughout our field of view. The stellar kinematics is dominated by circular motions in the galaxy plane, with a kinematic position angle of $\approx$137$^{\circ}$. The gas kinematics is also dominated by rotation, with kinematic position angles ranging from 122$^{\circ}$ to 139$^{\circ}$. A double-Gaussian fit to the [O\,{\sc iii}]$\lambda$5007 and H${\alpha}$ lines, which have the highest signal to noise ratios of the emission lines, reveal two kinematic components: (1) a component at lower radial velocities which we interpret as gas rotating in the galactic disk; and (2) a component with line of sight velocities 100–250 km s$^{-1}$ higher than the systemic velocity, interpreted as originating in the outflowing gas within the AGN ionization cone. We estimate a mass outflow rate of 7.4 $\times$ 10$^{-2}$ M${\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ in the SE ionization cone (this rate doubles if we assume a biconical configuration), and a mass accretion rate on the supermassive black hole (SMBH) of 2.2 $\times$ 10$^{-2}$ M${\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$. The total ionized gas mass within $\sim$84 pc of the nucleus is 3.3 $\times$ 10$^{5}$ M$_{\odot}$; infall velocities of $\sim$34 km s$^{-1}$ in this gas would be required to feed both the outflow and SMBH accretion.

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P. Humire, N. Nagar, C. Finlez, et. al.
Fri, 23 Feb 18

Comments: 18 pages, 14 figures

The Environments of the Most Energetic Gamma-Ray Bursts [HEAP]


We analyze the properties of a sample of long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) detected by the Fermi satellite that have a spectroscopic redshift and good follow-up coverage at both X-ray and optical/nIR wavelengths. The evolution of LGRB afterglows depends on the density profile of the external medium, enabling us to separate wind or ISM-like environments based on the observations. We do this by identifying the environment that provides the best agreement between estimates of $p$, the index of the underlying power-law distribution of electron energies, as determined by the behavior of the afterglow in different spectral/temporal regimes. At 11 rest-frame hours after trigger, we find a roughly even split between ISM-like and wind-like environments. We further find a 2$\sigma$ separation in the prompt emission energy distributions of wind-like and ISM-like bursts. We investigate the underlying physical parameters of the shock, and calculate the (degenerate) product of density and magnetic field energy ($\epsilon_B$). We show that $\epsilon_B$ must be $\ll 10^{-2}$ to avoid implied densities comparable to the intergalactic medium. Finally, we find that the most precisely constrained observations disagree on $p$ by more than would be expected based on observational errors alone. This suggests additional sources of error that are not incorporated in the standard afterglow theory. For the first time, we provide a measurement of this intrinsic error which can be represented as an error in the estimate of $p$ of magnitude $0.25 \pm 0.04$. When this error is included in the fits, the number of LGRBs with an identified environment drops substantially, but the equal division between the two types remains.

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B. Gompertz, A. Fruchter and A. Peer
Fri, 23 Feb 18

Comments: 28 pages, 9 figures, 5 tables. Submitted to ApJ

The Impact of Microlensing on the Standardisation of Strongly Lensed Type Ia Supernovae [CEA]


We investigate the effect of microlensing on the standardisation of strongly lensed Type Ia supernovae (GLSNe Ia). We present predictions for the amount of scatter induced by microlensing across a range of plausible strong lens macromodels. We find that lensed images in regions of low convergence, shear and stellar density are standardisable, where the microlensing scatter is comparable to the intrinsic dispersion of a typical SN Ia. These standardiable configurations correspond to the outer image of an asymmetric double for lenses with large Einstein radii. Quadruple image systems, symmetric doubles and small Einstein radii lenses are not standardisable. We apply our model to the recently discovered GLSN Ia iPTF16geu and find that the large discrepancy between the observed flux and the macromodel predictions from More et al. 2016 cannot be explained by microlensing alone. Using the mock GLSNe Ia catalogue of Goldstein et al. 2017, we predict that ~22% of GLSNe Ia discovered by LSST will be standardisable, with a median Einstein radius of 0.9 arcseconds and a median time-delay of 41 days. By breaking the mass-sheet degeneracy the full LSST GLSNe Ia sample will be able to detect systematics in H0 at the 0.5% level.

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M. Foxley-Marrable, T. Collett, G. Vernardos, et. al.
Fri, 23 Feb 18

Comments: 11 pages, 8 Figures. Submitted to MNRAS. Comments welcome

Progenitor Mass Distribution for Core-Collapse Supernova Remnants in M31 & M33 [SSA]


Using the star formation histories (SFHs) near 94 supernova remnants (SNRs), we infer the progenitor mass distribution for core-collapse supernovae. We use Bayesian inference and model each SFH with multiple bursts of star formation (SF), one of which is assumed to be associated with the SNR. Assuming single-star evolution, the minimum mass of CCSNe is $7.33^{+0.02}{-0.16}$ $\text{M}\odot$, the slope of the progenitor mass distribution is $\alpha = -2.96^{+0.45}{-0.25}$, and the maximum mass is greater than $\text{M}\textrm{max} > 59$ $\text{M}_\odot$ with a 68% confidence. While these results are consistent with previous inferences, they also provide tighter constraints. The progenitor distribution is somewhat steeper than a Salpeter initial mass function ($\alpha$ = -2.35). This suggests that either SNR catalogs are biased against the youngest SF regions, or the most massive stars do not explode as easily as lower mass stars. If SNR catalogs are biased, it will most likely affect the slope but not the minimum mass. The uncertainties are dominated by three primary sources of uncertainty, the SFH resolution, the number of SF bursts, and the uncertainty on SF rate in each age bin. We address the first two of these uncertainties, with an emphasis on multiple bursts. The third will be addressed in future work.

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M. Diaz-Rodriguez, J. Murphy, D. Rubin, et. al.
Fri, 23 Feb 18

Comments: 17 pages, 8 figures, submitted to ApJ