# Seismic sensitivity of Normal-mode Coupling to Lorentz stresses in the Sun [SSA]

Understanding the governing mechanism of solar magnetism remains an outstanding challenge in astrophysics. Seismology is the most compelling technique with which to infer the internal properties of the Sun and stars. Waves in the Sun, nominally acoustic, are sensitive to the emergence and cyclical strengthening of magnetic field, evidenced by measured changes in resonant oscillation frequencies that are correlated with the solar cycle. The inference of internal Lorentz stresses from these measurements has the potential to significantly advance our appreciation of the dynamo. Indeed, seismological inverse theory for the Sun is well understood for perturbations in composition, thermal structure and flows but, is not fully developed for magnetism, owing to the complexity of the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equation. Invoking first-Born perturbation theory to characterize departures from spherically symmetric hydrostatic models of the Sun and applying the notation of generalized spherical harmonics, we calculate sensitivity functions of seismic measurements to the general time-varying Lorentz stress tensor. We find that eigenstates of isotropic (i.e. acoustic only) background models are dominantly sensitive to isotropic deviations in the stress tensor and much more weakly so to anisotropic stresses (and therefore challenging to infer). The apple cannot fall far from the tree.

S. Hanasoge
Mon, 29 May 17
-77/35

Comments: 18 pages, 4 figures; MNRAS

# A Tale of Three Cities: OmegaCAM discovers multiple sequences in the color-magnitude diagram of the Orion Nebula Cluster [SSA]

As part of the Accretion Discs in H$\alpha$ with OmegaCAM (ADHOC) survey, we imaged in r, i and H-alpha a region of 12×8 square degrees around the Orion Nebula Cluster. Thanks to the high-quality photometry obtained, we discovered three well-separated pre-main sequences in the color-magnitude diagram. The populations are all concentrated towards the cluster’s center. Although several explanations can be invoked to explain these sequences we are left with two competitive, but intriguing, scenarios: a population of unresolved binaries with an exotic mass ratio distribution or three populations with different ages. Independent high-resolution spectroscopy supports the presence of discrete episodes of star formation, each separated by about a million years. The stars from the two putative youngest populations rotate faster than the older ones, in agreement with the evolution of stellar rotation observed in pre-main sequence stars younger than 4 Myr in several star forming regions. Whatever the final explanation, our results prompt for a revised look at the formation mode and early evolution of stars in clusters.

G. Beccari, M. Petr-Gotzens, H. Boffin, et. al.
Mon, 29 May 17
-76/35

# Experimental evidence for Glycolaldehyde and Ethylene Glycol formation by surface hydrogenation of CO molecules under dense molecular cloud conditions [GA]

This study focuses on the formation of two molecules of astrobiological importance – glycolaldehyde (HC(O)CH2OH) and ethylene glycol (H2C(OH)CH2OH) – by surface hydrogenation of CO molecules. Our experiments aim at simulating the CO freeze-out stage in interstellar dark cloud regions, well before thermal and energetic processing become dominant. It is shown that along with the formation of H2CO and CH3OH – two well established products of CO hydrogenation – also molecules with more than one carbon atom form. The key step in this process is believed to be the recombination of two HCO radicals followed by the formation of a C-C bond. The experimentally established reaction pathways are implemented into a continuous-time random-walk Monte Carlo model, previously used to model the formation of CH3OH on astrochemical time-scales, to study their impact on the solid-state abundances in dense interstellar clouds of glycolaldehyde and ethylene glycol.

G. Fedoseev, H. Cuppen, S. Ioppolo, et. al.
Fri, 26 May 17
-38/63

# Low Temperature Surface Formation of NH3 and HNCO: hydrogenation of nitrogen atoms in CO-rich interstellar ice analogues [GA]

Solid state astrochemical reaction pathways have the potential to link the formation of small nitrogen-bearing species, like NH3 and HNCO, and prebiotic molecules, specifically amino acids. To date, the chemical origin of such small nitrogen containing species is still not well understood, despite the fact that ammonia is an abundant constituent of interstellar ices toward young stellar objects and quiescent molecular clouds. This is mainly because of the lack of dedicated laboratory studies. The aim of the present work is to experimentally investigate the formation routes of NH3 and HNCO through non-energetic surface reactions in interstellar ice analogues under fully controlled laboratory conditions and at astrochemically relevant temperatures. This study focuses on the formation of NH3 and HNCO in CO-rich (non-polar) interstellar ices that simulate the CO freeze-out stage in dark interstellar cloud regions, well before thermal and energetic processing start to become relevant. We demonstrate and discuss the surface formation of solid HNCO through the interaction of CO molecules with NH radicals – one of the intermediates in the formation of solid NH3 upon sequential hydrogenation of N atoms. The importance of HNCO for astrobiology is discussed.

G. Fedoseev, S. Ioppolo, D. Zhao, et. al.
Fri, 26 May 17
-34/63

# HD 46487 is Now a Classical Be Star [SSA]

We present the first observations of hydrogen line emission detected around the B-type star HD 46487, a well-studied star in the CoRoT field of view. The emission is only evident in the H$\alpha$ line, for which the observed violet-red peak separation ($\Delta v_{p}$) is typical of a B$e$ star with a circumstellar disk. The absence of dust emission from the infrared spectral energy distribution excludes the possibility of a very young star. The star’s magnitude (V=5.079) and regular use in the literature for a variety of studies suggests that the line emission had a high probability of being found previously, had it been evident; since such was not the case, we believe that the B$e$ phenomenon for HD 46487 has only very recently “turned on.” We therefore recommend that this star be spectroscopically and photometrically monitored to track continued changes to its circumstellar morphology.

D. Whelan and R. Baker
Fri, 26 May 17
-32/63

Comments: 8 pages, 3 figures; accepted for publication in JAAVSO, Vol. 45

# Deuterium enrichment of ammonia produced by surface N+H/D addition reactions at low temperature [GA]

The surface formation of NH3 and its deuterated isotopologues – NH2D, NHD2, and ND3 – is investigated at low temperatures through the simultaneous addition of hydrogen and deuterium atoms to nitrogen atoms in CO-rich interstellar ice analogues. The formation of all four ammonia isotopologues is only observed up to 15 K, and drops below the detection limit for higher temperatures. Differences between hydrogenation and deuteration yields result in a clear deviation from a statistical distribution in favour of deuterium enriched species. The data analysis suggests that this is due to a higher sticking probability of D atoms to the cold surface, a property that may generally apply to molecules that are formed in low temperature surface reactions. The results found here are used to interpret ammonia deuterium fractionation as observed in pre-protostellar cores.

G. Fedoseev, S. Ioppolo and H. Linnartz
Fri, 26 May 17
-30/63