Ultra-High Energy Neutrino Afterglows of nearby Long Duration Gamma-Ray Bursts [HEAP]


Detection of ultra-high energy (UHE, $\gtrsim 1$ PeV) neutrinos from astrophysical sources will be a major advancement in identifying and understanding the sources of UHE cosmic rays (CRs) in nature. Long duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) blast waves have been considered as potential acceleration sites of UHECRs. These CRs are expected to interact with GRB afterglow photons, which is synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons co-accelerated with CRs in the blast wave, and naturally produce UHE neutrinos. Fluxes of these neutrinos are uncertain, however, and crucially depend on the observed afterglow modeling. We have selected a sample of 23 long duration GRBs within redshift 0.5 for which adequate electromagnetic afterglow data are available and which could produce high flux of UHE afterglow neutrinos, being nearby. We fit optical, X-ray and $\gamma$-ray afterglow data with an adiabatic blast wave model in a constant density interstellar medium and in a wind environment where the density of the wind decreases as inverse square of the radius from the center of the GRB. The blast wave model parameters extracted from these fits are then used for calculating UHECR acceleration and $p\gamma$ interactions to produce UHE neutrino fluxes from these GRBs. We have also explored the detectability of these neutrinos by currently running and upcoming large area neutrino detectors, such as the Pierre Auger Observatory, IceCube Gen-2 and KM3NeT observatories. We find that our realistic flux models from nearby GRBs will be unconstrained in foreseeable future.

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J. Thomas, R. Moharana and S. Razzaque
Thu, 12 Oct 17

Comments: 25 pages, 15 figures. Accepted in Phys. Rev. D

The ANAIS-112 experiment at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory [CL]


The ANAIS experiment aims at the confirmation of the DAMA/LIBRA signal at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC). Several 12.5 kg NaI(Tl) modules produced by Alpha Spectra Inc. have been operated there during the last years in various set-ups; an outstanding light collection at the level of 15 photoelectrons per keV, which allows triggering at 1 keV of visible energy, has been measured for all of them and a complete characterization of their background has been achieved. In the first months of 2017, the full ANAIS-112 set-up consisting of nine Alpha Spectra detectors with a total mass of 112.5 kg was commissioned at LSC and the first dark matter run started in August, 2017. Here, the latest results on the detectors performance and measured background from the commissioning run will be presented and the sensitivity prospects of the ANAIS-112 experiment will be discussed.

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J. Amare, S. Cebrian, I. Coarasa, et. al.
Thu, 12 Oct 17

Comments: To appear in the Proceedings of the XV International Conference on Topics in Astroparticle and Underground Physics (TAUP2017) at Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS)

Experimental Targets for Photon Couplings of the QCD Axion [CL]


The QCD axion’s coupling to photons is often assumed to lie in a narrow band as a function of the axion mass. We demonstrate that several simple mechanisms, in addition to the photophilic clockwork axion already in the literature, can significantly extend the allowed range of couplings. Some mechanisms we present generalize the KNP alignment scenario, widely studied as a model of inflation, to the phenomenology of a QCD axion. In particular we present new KSVZ-like realizations of two-axion KNP alignment and of the clockwork mechanism. Our “confinement tower” realization of clockwork may prove useful in a variety of model-building contexts. We also show that kinetic mixing of the QCD axion with a lighter axion-like particle can dramatically alter the QCD axion’s coupling to photons, differing from the other models we present by allowing non-quantized couplings. The simple models that we present fully cover the range of axion-photon couplings that could be probed by experiments. They motivate growing axion detection efforts over a wide space of masses and couplings.

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P. Agrawal, J. Fan, M. Reece, et. al.
Wed, 11 Oct 17

Comments: N/A

Probing Leptogenesis at Future Colliders [CL]


We investigate the question whether leptogenesis, as a mechanism for explaining the baryon asymmetry of the universe, can be tested at future colliders. Focusing on the minimal scenario of two right-handed neutrinos, we identify the allowed parameter space for successful leptogenesis in the heavy neutrino mass range between $5$ and $50$ GeV. Our calculation includes the lepton flavour violating contribution from heavy neutrino oscillations as well as the lepton number violating contribution from Higgs decays to the baryon asymmetry of the universe. We confront this parameter space region with the discovery potential for heavy neutrinos at future lepton colliders, which can be very sensitive in this mass range via displaced vertex searches. Beyond the discovery of heavy neutrinos, we study the precision at which the flavour-dependent active-sterile mixing angles can be measured. The measurement of these mixing angles at future colliders can test whether a minimal type I seesaw mechanism is the origin of the light neutrino masses, and it can be a first step towards probing leptogenesis as the mechanism of baryogenesis. We discuss how a stronger test could be achieved with an additional measurement of the heavy neutrino mass difference.

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S. Antusch, E. Cazzato, M. Drewes, et. al.
Wed, 11 Oct 17

Comments: 28 pages plus appendix, 11 figures

Probing Primordial Gravitational Waves: Ali CMB Polarization Telescope [CEA]


In this paper, we will give a general introduction to the project of Ali CMB Polarization Telescope (AliCPT), which is a Sino-US joint project led by the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) and has involved many different institutes in China. It is the first ground-based Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization experiment in China and an integral part of China’s Gravitational Waves Program. The main scientific goal of AliCPT project is to probe the primordial gravitational waves (PGWs) originated from the very early Universe.
The AliCPT project includes two stages. The first stage referred to as AliCPT-1, is to build a telescope in the Ali region of Tibet with an altitude of 5,250 meters. Once completed, it will be the worldwide highest ground-based CMB observatory and open a new window for probing PGWs in northern hemisphere. AliCPT-1 telescope is designed to have about 7,000 TES detectors at 90GHz and 150GHz. The second stage is to have a more sensitive telescope (AliCPT-2) with the number of detectors more than 20,000.
Our simulations show that AliCPT will improve the current constraint on the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ by one order of magnitude with 3 years’ observation. Besides the PGWs, the AliCPT will also enable a precise measurement on the CMB rotation angle and provide a precise test on the CPT symmetry. We show 3 years’ observation will improve the current limit by two order of magnitude.

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H. Li, S. Li, Y. Liu, et. al.
Tue, 10 Oct 17

Comments: 10 pages, 7 figures, 2 tables

On the Role of Neutrinos Telescopes in the Search for Dark Matter Annihilations in the Sun [CL]


The observation of GeV neutrinos coming from the Sun would be an unmistakable signal of dark matter. Current neutrino detectors have so far failed to detect such a signal, however, and bounds from direct and indirect dark matter searches may significantly restrict the possibility of observing it in future experiments such as Hyper-Kamiokande or IceCube-Gen2. In this work, we assess in the light of current data and of expected experimental sensitivities, the prospects for the detection of a neutrino signal from dark matter annihilations in the Sun. To be as general as possible, equilibrium between the capture and the annihilation rates in the Sun is not assumed in our analysis; instead, the dark matter scattering and annihilation cross sections are taken as free and independent parameters. We consider capture via both spin-dependent and spin-independent interactions, and annihilations into three representative final states: $b\bar b$, $W^+W^-$, and $\tau^+\tau^-$. We find that when the capture in the Sun is dominated by spin-independent interactions, current direct detection bounds already preclude the observation of a neutrino signal in future experiments. For capture via spin-dependent interactions, a strong complementarity is observed, over most of the parameter space, between future neutrino detectors and planned direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments, such as PICO-500 and CTA. In this case, we also identify some regions of the parameter space that can be probed, via the neutrino flux from the Sun, only by future neutrino experiments.

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N. Fornengo, A. Masiero, F. Queiroz, et. al.
Mon, 9 Oct 17

Comments: 19 pages, 6 figures

The GAPS Experiment to Search for Dark Matter using Low-energy Antimatter [IMA]


The GAPS experiment is designed to carry out a sensitive dark matter search by measuring low-energy cosmic ray antideuterons and antiprotons. GAPS will provide a new avenue to access a wide range of dark matter models and masses that is complementary to direct detection techniques, collider experiments and other indirect detection techniques. Well-motivated theories beyond the Standard Model contain viable dark matter candidates which could lead to a detectable signal of antideuterons resulting from the annihilation or decay of dark matter particles. The dark matter contribution to the antideuteron flux is believed to be especially large at low energies (E < 1 GeV), where the predicted flux from conventional astrophysical sources (i.e. from secondary interactions of cosmic rays) is very low. The GAPS low-energy antiproton search will provide stringent constraints on less than 10 GeV dark matter, will provide the best limits on primordial black hole evaporation on Galactic length scales, and will explore new discovery space in cosmic ray physics.
Unlike other antimatter search experiments such as BESS and AMS that use magnetic spectrometers, GAPS detects antideuterons and antiprotons using an exotic atom technique. This technique, and its unique event topology, will give GAPS a nearly background-free detection capability that is critical in a rare-event search. GAPS is designed to carry out its science program using long-duration balloon flights in Antarctica. A prototype instrument was successfully flown from Taiki, Japan in 2012. GAPS has now been approved by NASA to proceed towards the full science instrument, with the possibility of a first long-duration balloon flight in late 2020. Here we motivate low-energy cosmic ray antimatter searches and discuss the current status of the GAPS experiment and the design of the payload.

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R. Ong, T. Aramaki, R. Bird, et. al.
Tue, 3 Oct 2017

Comments: 8 pags, 3 figures, Proc. 35th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2017), Busan, Korea