GOLDRUSH. II. Clustering of Galaxies at $z\sim 4-6$ Revealed with the Half-Million Dropouts Over the 100 deg$^2$ Area Corresponding to 1 Gpc$^3$ [GA]

We present clustering properties from 579,492 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at $z\sim4-6$ over the 100 deg$^2$ sky (corresponding to a 1.4 Gpc$^3$ volume) identified in early data of the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Subaru strategic program survey. We derive angular correlation functions (ACFs) of the HSC LBGs with unprecedentedly high statistical accuracies at $z\sim4-6$, and compare them with the halo occupation distribution (HOD) models. We clearly identify significant ACF excesses in $10″<\theta<90″$, the transition scale between 1- and 2-halo terms, suggestive of the existence of the non-linear halo bias effect. Combining the HOD models and previous clustering measurements of faint LBGs at $z\sim4-7$, we investigate dark-matter halo mass ($M_\mathrm{h}$) of the $z\sim4-7$ LBGs and its correlation with various physical properties including the star-formation rate (SFR), the stellar-to-halo mass ratio (SHMR), and the dark-matter mass accretion rate ($\dot{M}\mathrm{h}$) over a wide-mass range of $M\mathrm{h}/M_\odot=4\times10^{10}-4\times10^{12}$. We find that the SHMR increases from $z\sim4$ to $7$ by a factor of $\sim4$ at $M_\mathrm{h}\simeq1\times10^{11}\ M_\odot$, while the SHMR shows no strong evolution in the similar redshift range at $M_\mathrm{h}\simeq1\times10^{12}\ M_\odot$. Interestingly, we identify a tight relation of $SFR/\dot{M}\mathrm{h}-M\mathrm{h}$ showing no significant evolution beyond 0.15 dex in this wide-mass range over $z\sim4-7$. This weak evolution suggests that the $SFR/\dot{M}\mathrm{h}-M\mathrm{h}$ relation is a fundamental relation in high-redshift galaxy formation whose star-formation activities are regulated by the dark-matter mass assembly.

Read this paper on arXiv…

Y. Harikane, M. Ouchi, Y. Ono, et. al.
Mon, 24 Apr 17

Comments: 31 pages, 25 figures, submitted to a special issue of PASJ

Investigating the Unification of LOFAR-detected powerful AGN in the Boötes Field [GA]

Low radio frequency surveys are important for testing unified models of radio-loud quasars and radio galaxies. Intrinsically similar sources that are randomly oriented on the sky will have different projected linear sizes. Measuring the projected linear sizes of these sources provides an indication of their orientation. Steep-spectrum isotropic radio emission allows for orientation-free sample selection at low radio frequencies. We use a new radio survey of the Bo\”otes field at 150 MHz made with the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) to select a sample of radio sources. We identify 44 radio galaxies and 16 quasars with powers $P>10^{25.5}$ W Hz$^{-1}$ at 150 MHz using cross-matched multi-wavelength information from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES), which provides spectroscopic redshifts. We find that LOFAR-detected radio sources with steep spectra have projected linear sizes that are on average 4.4$\pm$1.4 larger than those with flat spectra. The projected linear sizes of radio galaxies are on average 3.1$\pm$1.0 larger than those of quasars (2.0$\pm$0.3 after correcting for redshift evolution). Combining these results with three previous surveys, we find that the projected linear sizes of radio galaxies and quasars depend on redshift but not on power. The projected linear size ratio does not correlate with either parameter. The LOFAR data is consistent within the uncertainties with theoretical predictions of the correlation between the quasar fraction and linear size ratio, based on an orientation-based unification scheme.

Read this paper on arXiv…

L. Morabito, W. Williams, K. Duncan, et. al.
Mon, 24 Apr 17

Comments: 14 pages, accepted for publication in MNRAS

Beta Dips in the Gaia Era: Simulation Predictions of the Galactic Velocity Anisotropy Parameter for Stellar Halos [GA]

The velocity anisotropy parameter, beta, is a measure of the kinematic state of orbits in the stellar halo which holds promise for constraining the merger history of the Milky Way (MW). We determine global trends for beta as a function of radius from three suites of simulations, including accretion only and cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We find that both types of simulations are consistent and predict strong radial anisotropy (<beta>~0.7) for Galactocentric radii greater than 10 kpc. Previous observations of beta for the MW’s stellar halo claim a detection of an isotropic or tangential “dip” at r~20 kpc. Using the N-body+SPH simulations, we investigate the temporal persistence, population origin, and severity of “dips” in beta. We find dips in the in situ stellar halo are long-lived, while dips in the accreted stellar halo are short-lived and tied to the recent accretion of satellite material. We also find that a major merger as early as z~1 can result in a present day low (isotropic to tangential) value of beta over a wide range of radii. While all of these mechanisms are plausible drivers for the beta dip observed in the MW, in the simulations, each mechanism has a unique metallicity signature associated with it, implying that future spectroscopic surveys could distinguish between them. Since an accurate knowledge of beta(r) is required for measuring the mass of the MW halo, we note significant transient dips in beta could cause an overestimate of the halo’s mass when using spherical Jeans equation modeling.

Read this paper on arXiv…

S. Loebman, M. Valluri, K. Hattori, et. al.
Mon, 24 Apr 17

Comments: 11 pages, 5 figures, submitted to ApJ, companion paper to Hattori et al. (2017)

Easing Tensions with Quartessence [CEA]

Tensions between cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations and the growth of the large-scale structure (LSS) inferred from late-time probes pose a serious challenge to the concordance $\Lambda$CDM cosmological model. State-of-the-art CMB data from the Planck satellite predicts a higher rate of structure growth than what preferred by low-redshift observables. Such tension has hitherto eluded conclusive explanations in terms of straightforward modifications to $\Lambda$CDM, e.g. the inclusion of massive neutrinos or a dynamical dark energy component. Here, we investigate `quartessence’ models, where a single dark component mimics both dark matter and dark energy. We show that such models greatly alleviate the tension between high and low redshift observations, thanks to the non-vanishing sound speed of quartessence that inhibits structure growth at late times on scales smaller than its corresponding Jeans’ length. In particular, the $3.4\sigma$ tension between CMB and LSS observables is thoroughly reabsorbed. For this reason, we argue that quartessence deserves further investigation and may lead to a deeper understanding of the physics of the dark Universe.

Read this paper on arXiv…

S. Camera, M. Martinelli and D. Bertacca
Mon, 24 Apr 17

Comments: 7 pages, 5 figures, 1 table; comments are welcome

Intrinsic Alignment in redMaPPer clusters — II. Radial alignment of satellites toward cluster centers [GA]

We study the orientations of satellite galaxies in redMaPPer clusters constructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at $0.1<z<0.35$ to determine whether there is any preferential tendency for satellites to point radially toward cluster centers. We analyze the satellite alignment (SA) signal based on three shape measurement methods (re-Gaussianization, de Vaucouleurs, and isophotal shapes), which trace galaxy light profiles at different radii. While no net SA signal is detected using re-Gaussianization shapes across the entire sample, the observed SA signal reaches a statistically significant level when using a subsample of satellites with higher luminosity. We detect the strongest SA signals using isophotal shapes, followed by de Vaucouleurs shapes, and investigate the impact of noise, systematics, and real physical effects such as isophotal twisting in the comparison between the results based on different shape measurement methods. After studying the correlation of the SA signal with a total of 17 galaxy and cluster properties, we find that the measured SA signal is strongest for satellites with the following characteristics: higher luminosity, smaller distance to the cluster center, rounder in shape, higher bulge fraction in the light profile, distributed preferentially along the major axis directions of their centrals, and residing in clusters with less luminous centrals. Finally, we provide physical explanations for the identified dependences, and discuss the connection to theories of SA.

Read this paper on arXiv…

H. Huang, R. Mandelbaum, P. Freeman, et. al.
Mon, 24 Apr 17

Comments: 23 pages, 17 figures, 4 tables, submitted to MNRAS

Constraining spatial variations of the fine-structure constant in symmetron models [CEA]

We introduce a methodology to test models with spatial variations of the fine-structure constant $\alpha$, based on the calculation of the angular power spectrum of these measurements. This methodology enables comparisons of observations and theoretical models through their predictions on the statistics of the $\alpha$ variation. Here we apply it to the case of symmetron models. We find no indications of deviations from the standard behavior, with current data providing an upper limit to the strength of the symmetron coupling to gravity ($\log{\beta^2}<-0.9$) when this is the only free parameter, and not able to constrain the model when also the symmetry breaking scale factor $a_{SSB}$ is free to vary.

Read this paper on arXiv…

A. Pinho, M. Martinelli and C. Martins
Mon, 24 Apr 17

Comments: Phys. Lett. B (in press)

Reliability of the measured velocity anisotropy of the Milky Way stellar halo [GA]

Determining the velocity distribution of halo stars is essential for estimating the mass of the Milky Way and for inferring its formation history. Since the stellar halo is a dynamically hot system, the velocity distribution of halo stars is well described by the 3-dimensional velocity dispersions $(\sigma_r, \sigma_\theta, \sigma_\phi)$, or by the velocity anisotropy parameter $\beta=1-(\sigma_\theta^2+\sigma_\phi^2)/(2\sigma_r^2)$. Direct measurements of $(\sigma_r, \sigma_\theta, \sigma_\phi)$ consistently suggest $\beta =0.5$-$0.7$ for nearby halo stars. In contrast, the value of $\beta$ at large Galactocentric radius $r$ is still controversial, since reliable proper motion data are available for only a handful of stars. In the last decade, several authors have tried to estimate $\beta$ for distant halo stars by fitting the observed line-of-sight velocities at each radius with simple velocity distribution models (local fitting methods). Some results of local fitting methods imply $\beta<0$ at $r \gtrsim 20 \;\rm{kpc}$, which is inconsistent with recent predictions from cosmological simulations. Here we perform mock-catalogue analyses to show that the estimates of $\beta$ based on local fitting methods are reliable only at $r \leq 15 \;\rm{kpc}$ with the current sample size ($\sim10^3$ stars at a given radius). As $r$ increases, the line-of-sight velocity (corrected for the Solar reflex motion) becomes increasingly closer to the Galactocentric radial velocity, so that it becomes increasingly more difficult to estimate tangential velocity dispersion $(\sigma_\theta, \sigma_\phi)$ from line-of-sight velocity distribution. Our results suggest that the forthcoming Gaia data will be crucial for understanding the velocity distribution of halo stars at $r \geq 20\;\rm{kpc}$.

Read this paper on arXiv…

K. Hattori, M. Valluri, S. Loebman, et. al.
Mon, 24 Apr 17

Comments: ApJ submitted. Comments welcome. 20 pages (14 pages + 6 pages for Appendix). 13 figures. Main result: Fig 7. Schematic diagram: Fig 9. Companion paper to Loebman et al. (2017)