PyCosmo: An Integrated Cosmological Boltzmann Solver [CEA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1708.05177


As wide-field surveys yield ever more precise measurements, cosmology has entered a phase of high precision requiring highly accurate and fast theoretical predictions. At the heart of most cosmological model predictions is a numerical solution of the Einstein-Boltzmann equations governing the evolution of linear perturbations in the Universe. We present PyCosmo, a new Python-based framework to solve this set of equations using a special pur- pose solver based on symbolic manipulations, automatic generation of C++ code and sparsity optimisation. The code uses a consistency relation of the field equations to adapt the time step and does not rely on physical approximations for speed-up. After reviewing the system of first-order linear homogeneous differential equations to be solved, we describe the numerical scheme implemented in PyCosmo. We then compare the predictions and performance of the code for the computation of the transfer functions of cosmological perturbations and compare it to existing cosmological Boltzmann codes. We find that we achieve comparable execution times for comparable accuracies. While PyCosmo does not yet have all the features of other codes, our approach is complementary to existing cosmological Boltzmann solvers and can be used as an independent test of their numerical solutions. The symbolic representation of the Einstein-Boltzmann equation system in PyCosmo provides a convenient interface for implementing extended cosmological models. We also discuss how the PyCosmo framework can also be used as a general framework to compute cosmological quantities as well as observables for both interactive and high-performance batch jobs applications. Information about the PyCosmo package and future code releases are available at this http URL

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A. Refregier, L. Gamper, A. Amara, et. al.
Fri, 18 Aug 17
10/47

Comments: 9 pages, 3 figures, 1 table. Submitted to Astronomy and Computing. See this http URL

Singularities and Cyclic Universes [CL]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1708.03929


The models of cyclic universes and cyclic multiverses based on the alternative gravity theories of varying constants are considered.

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M. Dabrowski
Fri, 18 Aug 17
20/47

Comments: 4 pages, no figures

On Thermal Gravitational Contribution to Particle Production and Dark Matter [CL]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1708.05138


We investigate the particle production from thermal gravitational annihilation in the very early universe, which is an important contribution for particles that might not be in thermal equilibrium or/and only have gravitational interaction, such as dark matter (DM). For particles with spin 0, 1/2 and 1 we calculate the relevant cross sections through gravitational annihilation and give the analytic formulas with full mass-dependent terms. We find that DM with mass between TeV and $10^{16}$GeV could have the relic abundance that fits the observation, with small dependence on its spin. We also discuss the effects of gravitational annihilation from inflatons. Interestingly, contributions from inflatons could be dominant and have the same power dependence on Hubble parameter of inflation as that from vacuum fluctuation. Also, fermion production from inflatons, in comparison to boson, is suppressed by its mass due to helicity selection.

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Y. Tang and Y. Wu
Fri, 18 Aug 17
25/47

Comments: 10 pages, 3 figures and 2 tables

eROSITA cluster cosmology forecasts: cluster temperature substructure bias [CEA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1708.05205


The eROSITA mission will provide the largest sample of galaxy clusters detected in X-ray to date (one hundred thousand expected). This sample will be used to constrain cosmological models by measuring cluster masses. An important mass proxy is the electron temperature of the hot plasma detected in X-rays. We want to understand the detection properties and possible bias in temperatures due to unresolved substructures in the cluster halos. We simulated a large number of galaxy cluster spectra with known temperature substructures and compared the results from analysing eROSITA simulated observations to earlier results from Chandra. We were able to constrain a bias in cluster temperatures and its impact on cluster masses as well as cosmological parameters derived from the survey. We found temperatures in the eROSITA survey to be biased low by about five per cent due to unresolved temperature substructures (compared to emission-weighted average temperatures from the Chandra maps). This bias would have a significant impact on the eROSITA cosmology constraints if not accounted for in the calibration. We isolated the bias effect that substructures in galaxy clusters have on temperature measurements and their impact on derived cosmological parameters in the eROSITA cluster survey.

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F. Hofmann, J. Sanders, N. Clerc, et. al.
Fri, 18 Aug 17
26/47

Comments: 8 pages, 7 figures, accepted for publication in A&A

eROSITA cluster cosmology forecasts: cluster temperature substructure bias [CEA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1708.05205


The eROSITA mission will provide the largest sample of galaxy clusters detected in X-ray to date (one hundred thousand expected). This sample will be used to constrain cosmological models by measuring cluster masses. An important mass proxy is the electron temperature of the hot plasma detected in X-rays. We want to understand the detection properties and possible bias in temperatures due to unresolved substructures in the cluster halos. We simulated a large number of galaxy cluster spectra with known temperature substructures and compared the results from analysing eROSITA simulated observations to earlier results from Chandra. We were able to constrain a bias in cluster temperatures and its impact on cluster masses as well as cosmological parameters derived from the survey. We found temperatures in the eROSITA survey to be biased low by about five per cent due to unresolved temperature substructures (compared to emission-weighted average temperatures from the Chandra maps). This bias would have a significant impact on the eROSITA cosmology constraints if not accounted for in the calibration. We isolated the bias effect that substructures in galaxy clusters have on temperature measurements and their impact on derived cosmological parameters in the eROSITA cluster survey.

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F. Hofmann, J. Sanders, N. Clerc, et. al.
Fri, 18 Aug 17
26/47

Comments: 8 pages, 7 figures, accepted for publication in A&A

A spectroscopic search for AGN activity in the reionization era [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1708.05173


The ubiquity of Lyman alpha (Ly$\alpha$) emission in a sample of four bright [O III]-strong star-forming galaxies with redshifts above 7 has led to the suggestion that such luminous sources represent a distinct population compared to their fainter, more numerous, counterparts. The presence of Ly$\alpha$ emission within the reionization era could indicate that these sources created early ionized bubbles due to their unusually strong radiation, possibly due to the presence of active galactic nuclei. To test this hypothesis we have secured long integration spectra with XSHOOTER on the VLT for three $z\simeq$7 sources selected to have similar luminosities and prominent excess fluxes in the IRAC 3.6 or 4.5$\mu$m band, usually attributed to strong [O III] emission. We secured additional spectroscopy for one of these galaxies at $z$=7.15 using MOSFIRE at the Keck telescope. For this, the most well-studied source in our sample with the strongest IRAC excess, we detect prominent nebular emission from He II and NV indicative of a non-thermal source. For the other two sources at $z$=6.81 and $z$=6.85, for which no previous optical/near infrared spectroscopy was initially available, Ly$\alpha$ is seen in one and CIII] emission in the other. Although a modest sample, our results further support the hypothesis that the phenomenon of intense [O III] emission is associated preferentially with sources lying in early ionized bubbles. However, even though one of our sources at $z$=7.15 clearly indicates the presence of non-thermal radiation, such ionized bubbles may not uniquely arise in this manner. We discuss the unique advantages of extending such challenging diagnostic studies with JWST.

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N. Laporte, K. Nakajima, R. Ellis, et. al.
Fri, 18 Aug 17
27/47

Comments: 11 pages, 7 figures, submitted to ApJ

Regular Multi-Horizon Black Holes in Modified Gravity with Non-Linear Electrodynamics [CL]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1708.05226


We investigated the regular multi-horizon black holes in the Einstein gravity, $F(R)$ gravity and the 5 dimensional Gauss-Bonnet gravity, all of them coupled with non-linear electrodynamics. We presented several explicit examples of the actions which admit the solutions describing regular black hole space-time with multi-horizons. Thermodynamics of the obtained black hole solutions is studied. The explicit expressions of the temperature, the entropy, the thermodynamical energy and the free energy are obtained. Although the temperature vanishes in the extremal limit where the radii of the two horizons coincide with each other as in the standard multi-horizon black hole like the Reissner-Nordstr\” om black hole or the Kerr black hole, the larger temperature corresponds to the larger horizon radius. This is different from the standard black holes, where the larger temperature corresponds to the smaller horizon radius. We also found that the specific heat becomes positive for the large temperature, which is also different from the standard black holes, where the specific heat is negative. It should be also noted that the thermodynamical energy is not identical with the ADM mass. Furthermore in case of the Gauss-Bonnet gravity,it is demonstrated that the entropy can become negative.

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S. Nojiri and S. Odintsov
Fri, 18 Aug 17
29/47

Comments: LaTeX 17 pages