Unusual rainbows as auroral candidates: another point of view [SSA]


Several auroral events that occurred in the past have not been catalogued as such due to fact that they were described in the historical sources with different terminology. Hayakawa et al. (2016) have reviewed historical oriental chronicles and have proposed the terms “unusual rainbow” and “white rainbow” as candidates to auroras. In this work, we present three events that took place in the 18th century in two different settings (the Iberian Peninsula and Brazil) that were originally described with similar definition/wording used by the oriental chronicles, despite the inherent differences in terms associated to oriental and Latin languages. We show that these terms are indeed applicable to the three case studies from Europe and South America. Thus, the auroral catalogues available can be extended for occidental sources with this new terminology.

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V. Carrasco, R. Trigo and J. Vaquero
Mon, 22 May 17

Comments: 6 pages, accepted for publication in Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn

The first-year shear catalog of the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam SSP Survey [CEA]


We present and characterize the catalog of galaxy shape measurements that will be used for cosmological weak lensing measurements in the Wide layer of the first year of the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey. The catalog covers an area of 136.9 deg$^2$ split into six fields, with a mean $i$-band seeing of 0.58 arcsec and $5\sigma$ point-source depth of $i\sim 26$. Given conservative galaxy selection criteria for first year science, the depth and excellent image quality results in unweighted and weighted source number densities of 24.6 and 21.8 arcmin$^{-2}$, respectively. Point-spread function (PSF) modeling is carried out on individual exposures, while galaxy shapes are measured on a linear coaddition. We define the requirements for cosmological weak lensing science with this catalog, characterize potential systematics in the catalog using a series of internal null tests for problems with PSF modeling, shear estimation, and other aspects of the image processing, and describe systematics tests using two different sets of image simulations. Finally, we discuss the dominant systematics and the planned algorithmic changes to reduce them in future data reductions.

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R. Mandelbaum, H. Miyatake, T. Hamana, et. al.
Mon, 22 May 17

Comments: 23 figures, 4 tables, submitted to PASJ

Evaporation of planetary atmospheres due to XUV illumination by quasars [EPA]


Planetary atmospheres are subject to mass loss through a variety of mechanisms including irradiation by XUV photons from their host star. Here we explore the consequences of XUV irradiation by supermassive black holes as they grow by the accretion of gas in galactic nuclei. Based on the mass distribution of stars in galactic bulges and disks and the luminosity history of individual black holes, we estimate the probability distribution function of XUV fluences as a function of galaxy halo mass, redshift, and stellar component. We find that about 50% of all planets in the universe may lose the equivalent of a Martian atmosphere, 10% may lose an Earth’s atmosphere, and 0.2% may lose the mass of Earth’s oceans. The fractions are appreciably higher in the spheroidal components of galaxies, and depend strongly on galaxy mass, but only weakly on redshift.

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J. Forbes and A. Loeb
Mon, 22 May 17

Comments: Submitted to MNRAS

A generalized approach to model the spectra and radiation dose rate of solar particle events on the surface of Mars [EPA]


For future human missions to Mars, it is important to study the surface radiation environment during extreme and elevated conditions. In the long term, it is mainly Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) modulated by solar activity that contributes to the radiation on the surface of Mars, but intense solar energetic particle (SEP) events may induce acute health effects. Such events may enhance the radiation level significantly and should be detected as immediately as possible to prevent severe damage to humans and equipment. However, the energetic particle environment on the Martian surface is significantly different from that in deep space due to the influence of the Martian atmosphere, and, to a lesser extent, the regolith. Depending on the intensity and shape of the original solar particle spectra as well as particle types, the surface spectra may induce entirely different radiation effects. For instance, an intense SEP event with a soft spectrum that would be hazardous on the lunar surface may, in contrast, induce only low levels of radiation on the Martian surface that would be well within human health tolerances. In order to give immediate and accurate alerts while avoiding unnecessary ones, it is important to model and well understand the atmospheric effect on the incoming SEPs including both protons and helium ions. In this paper, we have developed a generalized approach to quickly model the surface response of any given incoming proton/helium ion spectra and have applied it to a set of historical large solar events, thus providing insights into the possible variety of surface radiation environments that may be induced during SEP events.

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J. Guo, C. Zeitlin, R. Wimmer-Schweingruber, et. al.
Mon, 22 May 17

Comments: N/A

Gemini NIFS survey of feeding and feedback processes in nearby Active Galaxies: I – Stellar kinematics [GA]


We use the Gemini Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) to map the stellar kinematics of the inner few hundred parsecs of a sample of 16 nearby Seyfert galaxies, at a spatial resolution of tens of parsecs and spectral resolution of 40 km/s. We find that the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity fields for most galaxies are well reproduced by rotating disk models. The kinematic position angle (PA) derived for the LOS velocity field is consistent with the large scale photometric PA. The residual velocities are correlated with the hard X-ray luminosity, suggesting that more luminous AGN have a larger impact in the surrounding stellar dynamics. The central velocity dispersion values are usually higher than the rotation velocity amplitude, what we attribute to the strong contribution of bulge kinematics in these inner regions. For 50% of the galaxies, we find an inverse correlation between the velocities and the $h_3$ Gauss-Hermitte moment, implying red wings in the blueshifted side and blue wings in the redshifted side of the velocity field, attributed to the movement of the bulge stars lagging the rotation. Two of the 16 galaxies (NGC 5899 and Mrk 1066) show an S-shape zero velocity line, attributed to the gravitational potential of a nuclear bar. Velocity dispersion maps show rings of low-$\sigma$ values (50-80 km/s) for 4 objects and “patches” of low-sigma for 6 galaxies at 150-250 pc from the nucleus, attributed to young/ intermediate age stellar populations.

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R. Riffel, T. Storchi-Bergmann, R. Riffel, et. al.
Mon, 22 May 17

Comments: To be published in MNRAS

Stability of Einstein static universe in Eddington-inspire Born-Infeld theory [CL]


By considering the realization of emergent universe scenario in Eddington-inspire Born-Infeld (EiBI) theory, we study the stability of Einstein static universe filled with perfect fluid in EiBI theory against both the homogeneous and inhomogeneous scalar perturbations in this work. We find that in both the spatially flat and closed cases, the emergent universe scenario is no longer viable, since Einstein static universe cannot be stable against both the homogeneous and inhomogeneous scalar perturbations simultaneously. However, the emergent universe scenario survives in the spatially open case, while Einstein static universe can be stable under some conditions.

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S. Li and H. Wei
Mon, 22 May 17

Comments: 10 pages, revtex4

Photometric and spectroscopic variability of the B5IIIe star HD 171219 [SSA]


We analyzed the star HD 171219, one of the relatively bright Be stars observed in the seismo field of the CoRoT satellite, in order to determine its physical and pulsation characteristics. Classical Be stars are main-sequence objects of mainly B-type, whose spectra show, or had shown at some epoch, Balmer lines in emission and an infrared excess. Both characteristics are attributed to an equatorially concentrated circumstellar disk fed by non-periodic mass-loss episodes (outbursts). Be stars often show nonradial pulsation gravity modes and, as more recently discovered, stochastically excited oscillations. Applying the CLEANEST algorithm to the high-cadence and highly photometrically precise measurements of the HD 171219 light curve led us to perform an unprecedented detailed analysis of its nonradial pulsations. Tens of frequencies have been detected in the object compatible with nonradial g-modes. Additional high-resolution ground-based spectroscopic observations were obtained at La Silla (HARPS) and Haute Provence (SOPHIE) observatories during the month preceding CoRoT observations. Additional information was obtained from low-resolution spectra from the BeSS database. From spectral line fitting we determined physical parameters of the star, which is seen equator-on. We also found in the ground data the same frequencies as in CoRoT data. Additionally, we analyzed the circumstellar activity through the traditional method of V/R emission H{\alpha} line variation. A quintuplet was identified at approximately 1.113 c/d (12.88 {\mu}Hz) with a separation of 0.017 c/d that can be attributed to a pulsation degree l~2. The light curve shows six small- to medium-scale outbursts during the CoRoT observations. The intensity of the main frequencies varies after each outburst, suggesting a possible correlation between the nonradial pulsations regime and the feeding of the envelope.

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L. Andrade, E. Janot-Pacheco, M. Emilio, et. al.
Mon, 22 May 17

Comments: 7 pages, 10 figures