IAU WG, Data-driven Astronomy Education and Public Outreach,current status and working plans [IMA]


IAU Inter-Commission B2-C1-C2 WG Data-driven Astronomy Education and Public Outreach (DAEPO) was launched officially in April 2017. With the development of many mega-science astronomical projects, for example CTA, DESI, EUCLID, FAST, GAIA, JWST, LAMOST, LSST, SDSS, SKA, and large scale simulations, astronomy has become a Big Data science. Astronomical data is not only necessary resource for scientific research, but also very valuable resource for education and public outreach (EPO), especially in the era of Internet and Cloud Computing. IAU WG Data-driven Astronomy Education and Public Outreach is hosted at the IAU Division B (Facilities, Technologies and Data Science) Commission B2 (Data and Documentation), and organized jointly with Commission C1 (Astronomy Education and Development), Commission C2 (Communicating Astronomy with the Public), Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD), Office for Astronomy Outreach (OAO) and several other non IAU communities, including IVOA Education Interest Group, American Astronomical Society Worldwide Telescope Advisory Board, Zooniverse project and International Planetarium Society. The working group has the major objectives to: Act as a forum to discuss the value of astronomy data in EPO, the advantages and benefits of data driven EPO, and the challenges facing to data driven EPO; Provide guidelines, curriculum, data resources, tools, and e-infrastructure for data driven EPO; Provide best practices of data driven EPO. In the paper, backgrounds, current status and working plans in the future are introduced. More information about the WG is available at: this http URL

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C. Cui and S. Li
Wed, 17 Jan 18

Comments: 4 pages, presented at the Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems (ADASS) XXVII conference, Santiago, Chile, October 2017

A search for faint high-redshift radio galaxy candidates at 150 MHz [GA]


Ultra-steep spectrum (USS) radio sources are good tracers of powerful radio galaxies at $z > 2$. Identification of even a single bright radio galaxy at $z > 6$ can be used to detect redshifted 21cm absorption due to neutral hydrogen in the intervening IGM. Here we describe a new sample of high-redshift radio galaxy (HzRG) candidates constructed from the TGSS ADR1 survey at 150 MHz. We employ USS selection ($\alpha \le -1.3$) in $\sim10000$ square degrees, in combination with strict size selection and non-detections in all-sky optical and infrared surveys. We apply flux density cuts that probe a unique parameter space in flux density ($50 < S_{\textrm{150}} < 200$ mJy) to build a sample of 32 HzRG candidates. Follow-up Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations at 1.4 GHz with an average beam size of $1.3$ arcseconds ($”$) revealed $\sim 48\%$ of sources to have a single radio component. P-band (370 MHz) imaging of 17 of these sources revealed a flattening radio SED for ten sources at low frequencies, which is expected from compact HzRGs. Two of our sources lie in fields where deeper multi-wavelength photometry and ancillary radio data are available and for one of these we find a best-fit photo-z of $4.8 \pm 2.0$. The other source has $z_{\textrm{phot}}=1.4 \pm 0.1$ and a small angular size ($3.7″$), which could be associated with an obscured star forming galaxy or with a “dead” elliptical. One USS radio source not part of the HzRG sample but observed with the VLA nonetheless is revealed to be a candidate giant radio galaxy with a host galaxy photo-z of $1.8\pm0.5$, indicating a size of 875 kpc.

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A. Saxena, P. Jagannathan, H. Rottgering, et. al.
Wed, 17 Jan 18

Comments: 17 pages, 13 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS

Radio haloes in nearby galaxies modelled with 1D cosmic-ray transport using SPINNAKER [GA]


We present radio continuum maps of 12 nearby ($D\leq 27~\rm Mpc$), edge-on ($i\geq 76^{\circ}$), late-type spiral galaxies mostly at $1.4$ and 5 GHz, observed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, Very Large Array, Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, Effelsberg 100-m and Parkes 64-m telescopes. All galaxies show clear evidence of radio haloes, including the first detection in the Magellanic-type galaxy NGC 55. In 11 galaxies, we find a thin and a thick disc that can be better fitted by exponential rather than Gaussian functions. We fit our SPINNAKER (SPectral INdex Numerical Analysis of K(c)osmic-ray Electron Radio-emission) 1D cosmic-ray transport models to the vertical model profiles of the non-thermal intensity and to the non-thermal radio spectral index in the halo. We simultaneously fit for the advection speed (or diffusion coefficient) and magnetic field scale height. In the thick disc, the magnetic field scale heights range from 2 to 8 kpc with an average across the sample of $3.0\pm 1.7~\rm kpc$; they show no correlation with either star-formation rate (SFR), SFR surface density ($\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$) or rotation speed ($V_{\rm rot}$). The advection speeds range from 100 to $700~\rm km\,s^{-1}$ and display correlations of $V\propto \rm SFR^{0.36\pm 0.06}$ and $V\propto \Sigma_{\rm SFR}^{0.39\pm 0.09}$; they agree remarkably well with the escape velocities ($0.5\leq V/V_{\rm esc}\leq 2$), which can be explained by cosmic-ray driven winds. Radio haloes show the presence of disc winds in galaxies with $\Sigma_{\rm SFR} > 10^{-3}~\rm M_{\odot}\,yr^{-1}\,kpc^{-2}$ that extend over several kpc and are driven by processes related to the distributed star formation in the disc.

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V. Heesen, M. Krause, R. Beck, et. al.
Wed, 17 Jan 18

Comments: 39 pages, 20 colour figures, 10 tables. Accepted by MNRAS

The dependence of galaxy clustering on stellar mass, star-formation rate and redshift at z = 0.8-2.2, with HiZELS [GA]


The deep, near-infrared narrow-band survey HiZELS has yielded robust samples of H-alpha emitting star-forming galaxies within narrow redshift slices at z = 0.8, 1.47 and 2.23. In this paper, we distinguish the stellar mass and star-formation rate (SFR) dependence of the clustering of these galaxies. At high stellar masses (M/M_sol>2×10^10), where HiZELS selects galaxies close to the so-called star-forming main sequence, the clustering strength is observed to increase strongly with stellar mass (in line with the results of previous studies of mass-selected galaxy samples) and also with SFR. These two dependencies are shown to hold independently. At lower stellar masses, however, where HiZELS probes high specific SFR galaxies, there is little or no dependence of the clustering strength on stellar mass, but the dependence on SFR remains: high-SFR low-mass galaxies are found in more massive dark matter haloes than their lower SFR counterparts. We argue that this is due to environmentally driven star formation in these systems. We apply the same selection criteria to the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. We find that, in EAGLE, the high-SFR low-mass galaxies are central galaxies in more massive dark matter haloes, in which the high SFRs are driven by a (halo-driven) increased gas content.

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R. Cochrane, P. Best, D. Sobral, et. al.
Wed, 17 Jan 18

Comments: 17 pages, 13 figures; accepted by MNRAS

Initial conditions for Inflation in an FRW Universe [CL]


We examine the class of initial conditions which give rise to inflation. Our analysis is carried out for several popular models including: Higgs inflation, Starobinsky inflation, chaotic inflation, axion monodromy inflation and non-canonical inflation. In each case we determine the set of initial conditions which give rise to sufficient inflation, with at least $60$ e-foldings. A phase-space analysis has been performed for each of these models and the effect of the initial inflationary energy scale on inflation has been studied numerically. This paper discusses two scenarios of Higgs inflation: (i) the Higgs is coupled to the scalar curvature, (ii) the Higgs Lagrangian contains a non-canonical kinetic term. In both cases we find Higgs inflation to be very robust since it can arise for a large class of initial conditions. One of the central results of our analysis is that, for plateau-like potentials associated with the Higgs and Starobinsky models, inflation can be realized even for initial scalar field values which lie close to the minimum of the potential. This dispels a misconception relating to plateau potentials prevailing in the literature. We also find that inflation in all models is more robust for larger values of the initial energy scale.

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S. Mishra, V. Sahni and A. Toporensky
Wed, 17 Jan 18

Comments: 46 pages, 29 figures

Hybrid modeling of redshift space distortions [CEA]


The observed power spectrum in redshift space appears distorted due to the peculiar motion of galaxies, known as redshift-space distortions (RSD). While all the effects in RSD are accounted for by the simple mapping formula from real to redshift spaces, accurately modeling redshift-space power spectrum is rather difficult due to the non-perturbative properties of the mapping. Still, however, a perturbative treatment may be applied to the power spectrum at large-scales, and on top of a careful modeling of the Finger-of-God effect caused by the small-scale random motion, the redshift-space power spectrum can be expressed as a series of expansion which contains the higher-order correlations of density and velocity fields. In our previous work [JCAP 8 (Aug., 2016) 050], we provide a perturbation-theory inspired model for power spectrum in which the higher-order correlations are evaluated directly from the cosmological $N$-body simulations. Adopting a simple Gaussian ansatz for Finger-of-God effect, the model is shown to quantitatively describe the simulation results. Here, we further push this approach, and present an accurate power spectrum template which can be used to estimate the growth of structure as a key to probe gravity on cosmological scales. Based on the simulations, we first calibrate the uncertainties and systematics in the pertrubation theory calculation in a fiducial cosmological model. Then, using the scaling relations, the calibrated power spectrum template is applied to a different cosmological model. We demonstrate that with our new template, the best-fitted growth functions are shown to reproduce the fiducial values in a good accuracy of 1 \% at $k<0.18 \hompc$ for cosmologies with different Hubble parameters.

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Y. Song, Y. Zheng, A. Taruya, et. al.
Wed, 17 Jan 18

Comments: 24 pages

Descendants of the first stars: the distinct chemical signature of second generation stars [GA]


Extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars in the Milky Way (MW) allow us to infer the properties of their progenitors by comparing their chemical composition to the metal yields of the first supernovae. This method is most powerful when applied to mono-enriched stars, i.e. stars that formed from gas that was enriched by only one previous supernova. We present a novel diagnostic to identify this subclass of EMP stars. We model the first generations of star formation semi-analytically, based on dark matter halo merger trees that yield MW-like halos at the present day. Radiative and chemical feedback are included self-consistently and we trace all elements up to zinc. Mono-enriched stars account for only $\sim 1\%$ of second generation stars in our fiducial model and we provide an analytical formula for this probability. We also present a novel analytical diagnostic to identify mono-enriched stars, based on the metal yields of the first supernovae. This new diagnostic allows us to derive our main results independently from the specific assumptions made regarding Pop III star formation, and we apply it to a set of observed EMP stars to demonstrate its strengths and limitations. Our results can be employed as selection criteria for current and future surveys and therefore contribute to a deeper understanding of EMP stars and their progenitors.

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T. Hartwig, N. Yoshida, M. Magg, et. al.
Wed, 17 Jan 18

Comments: 18 pages, 20 figures, submitted to MNRAS, comments welcome