The Evolution of Temperature and Bolometric Luminosity in Type-II Supernovae [HEAP]

In this work we present a uniform analysis of the temperature evolution and bolometric luminosity of a sample of 29 type-II supernovae (SNe), by fitting a black body model to their multi-band photometry. Our sample includes only SNe with high quality multi-band data and relatively well sampled time coverage. Most of the SNe in our sample were detected less than a week after explosion so their light curves cover the evolution both before and after recombination starts playing a role. We use this sample to study the signature of hydrogen recombination, which is expected to appear once the observed temperature drops to $\approx 7,000$K. Theory predicts that before recombination starts affecting the light curve, both the luminosity and the temperature should drop relatively fast, following a power-law in time. Once the recombination front reaches inner parts of the outflow, it sets the observed temperature to be nearly constant, and slows the decline of the luminosity (or even leads to a re-brightening). We compare our data to analytic studies and find strong evidence for the signature of recombination. We also find that the onset of the optical plateau in a given filter, is effectively the time at which the black body peak reaches the central wavelength of the filter, as it cools, and it does not correspond to the time at which recombination starts affecting the emission.

Read this paper on arXiv…

T. Faran, E. Nakar and D. Poznanski
Wed, 26 Jul 17

Comments: Submitted to MNRAS, after reviewer comments

First results from the DEAP-3600 dark matter search with argon at SNOLAB [CEA]

This paper reports the first results of a direct dark matter search with the DEAP-3600 single-phase liquid argon (LAr) detector. The experiment was performed 2 km underground at SNOLAB (Sudbury, Canada) utilizing a large target mass, with the LAr target contained in a spherical acrylic vessel of 3600 kg capacity. The LAr is viewed by an array of PMTs, which would register scintillation light produced by rare nuclear recoil signals induced by dark matter particle scattering. An analysis of 4.7 days (fiducial exposure of 9.87 tonne-days) of data taken with the nearly full detector during the initial filling phase demonstrates the detector performance and the best electronic recoil rejection using pulse-shape discrimination in argon, with leakage $<1.2\times 10^{-7}$ (90% C.L.) between 16 and 33 keV$_{ee}$. No candidate signal events are observed, which results in the leading limit on WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section on argon, $<1.2\times 10^{-44}$ cm$^2$ for a 100 GeV/c$^2$ WIMP mass (90% C.L.).

Read this paper on arXiv…

P. Amaudruz, M. Baldwin, M. Batygov, et. al.
Wed, 26 Jul 17

Comments: N/A

The interstellar chemistry of C3H and C3H2 isomers [GA]

We report the detection of linear and cyclic isomers of C3H and C3H2 towards various starless cores and review the corresponding chemical pathways involving neutral (C3Hx with x=1,2) and ionic (C3Hx+ with x = 1,2,3) isomers. We highlight the role of the branching ratio of electronic Dissociative Recombination (DR) reactions of C3H2+ and C3H3+ isomers showing that the statistical treatment of the relaxation of C3H* and C3H2* produced in these DR reactions may explain the relative c,l-C3H and c,l-C3H2 abundances. We have also introduced in the model the third isomer of C3H2 (HCCCH). The observed cyclic-to-linear C3H2 ratio vary from 110 + or – 30 for molecular clouds with a total density around 1e4 to 30 + or – 10 for molecular clouds with a total density around 4e5, a trend well reproduced with our updated model. The higher ratio for low molecular cloud densities is mainly determined by the importance of the H + l-C3H2 -> H + c-C3H2 and H + t-C3H2 -> H + c-C3H2 isomerization reactions.

Read this paper on arXiv…

J. Loison, M. Agundez, V. Wakelam, et. al.
Wed, 26 Jul 17

Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS

The correlation between radio power and Mach number for radio relics in galaxy clusters [HEAP]

We discuss a new technique to constrain models for the origin of radio relics in galaxy clusters using the correlation between the shock Mach number and the radio power of relics. This analysis is carried out using a sample of relics with information on both the Mach numbers derived from X-ray observation, $\mathcal{M}X$, and using spectral information from radio observations of the peak and the average values of the spectral index along the relic, $\mathcal{M}_R$. We find that there is a lack of correlation between $\mathcal{M}_X$ and $\mathcal{M}_R$; this result is an indication that the spectral index of the relic is likely not due to the acceleration of particles operated by the shock but it is related to the properties of a fossil electrons population. We also find that the available data on the correlation between the radio power $P{1.4}$ and Mach numbers ($\mathcal{M}R$ and $\mathcal{M}_X$) in relics indicate that neither the DSA nor the adiabatic compression can simply reproduce the observed $P{1.4}-\mathcal{M}$ correlations. Furthermore, we find that the radio power is not correlated with $\mathcal{M}_X$, whereas it is not possible to exclude a correlation with $\mathcal{M}_R$. This also indicates that the relic power is mainly determined by the properties of a fossil electron population rather than by the properties of the shock. Our results require either to consider models of shock (re)acceleration that go beyond the proposed scenarios of DSA and adiabatic compression at shocks, or to reconsider the origin of radio relics in terms of other physical scenarios.

Read this paper on arXiv…

S. Colafrancesco, P. Marchegiani and C. Paulo
Wed, 26 Jul 17

Comments: 14 pages, 8 figures. MNRAS, in press

The Second Data Release of the KODIAQ Survey [GA]

We present and make publicly available the second data release (DR2) of the Keck Observatory Database of Ionized Absorption toward Quasars (KODIAQ) survey. KODIAQ DR2 consists of a fully-reduced sample of 300 quasars at 0.07 < z_em < 5.29 observed with HIRES at high resolution (36,000 <= R <= 103,000). DR2 contains 831 spectra available in continuum normalized form, representing a sum total exposure time of ~4.9 megaseconds on source. These co-added spectra arise from a total of 1577 individual exposures of quasars taken from the Keck Observatory Archive (KOA) in raw form and uniformly processed. DR2 extends DR1 by adding 130 new quasars to the sample, including additional observations of QSOs in DR1. All new data in DR2 were obtained with the single-chip Tektronix TK2048 CCD configuration of HIRES in operation between 1995 and 2004. DR2 is publicly available to the community, housed as a higher level science product at the KOA and in the igmspec database (v03).

Read this paper on arXiv…

J. OMeara, N. Lehner, J. Howk, et. al.
Wed, 26 Jul 17

Comments: Accepted for publication in the Astronomical Journal. 4 pages, 3 tables, 7 figures

Demonstration of radon removal from SF$_6$ using molecular sieves for dark matter searches [CL]

The gas SF$_6$ has become of interest as a negative ion drift gas for use in directional dark matter searches. However, as for other targets in such searches, it is important that radon contamination can be removed as this provides a source of unwanted background events. In this work we demonstrate for the first time filtration of radon from SF$_6$ gas by using a molecular sieve. Four types of sieve from Sigma-Aldrich were investigated, namely 3A, 4A, 5A and 13X. A manufactured radon source was used for the tests. This was attached to a closed loop system in which gas was flowed through the filters and a specially adapted Durridge RAD7 radon detector. In these measurements, it was found that only the 5A type was able to significantly reduce the radon concentration without absorbing the SF$_6$ gas. The sieve was able to reduce the initial radon concentration of 3875 $\pm$ 13 Bqm$^{-3}$ in SF$_6$ gas by 87% when cooled with dry ice. The ability of the cooled 5A molecular sieve filter to significantly reduce radon concentration from SF$_6$ provides a promising foundation for the construction of a radon filtration setup for future ultra-sensitive SF$_6$ gas rare-event physics experiments.

Read this paper on arXiv…

A. Ezeribe, W. Lynch, R. Mckeand, et. al.
Wed, 26 Jul 17

Comments: 12 pages, 10 figures

What is the role of wind mass transfer in the progenitor evolution of Type Ia Supernovae? [SSA]

Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are thermonuclear explosions of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (WDs) that accrete mass from a binary companion, which can be either a non-degenerate star (a main-sequence star or a giant) or an other WD in a binary merger (single- and double-degenerate scenario, respectively). In population-synthesis studies of SNe Ia the contribution of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to either scenario is marginal. However, most of these studies adopt simplified assumptions to compute the effects of wind mass loss and accretion in binary systems. This work investigates the impact of wind mass transfer on a population of binary stars and discusses the role of AGB stars as progenitors of SNe Ia.

Read this paper on arXiv…

C. Abate
Wed, 26 Jul 17

Comments: Conference proceeding of the meeting “The AGB-Supernovae Mass Transition” which took place in Frascati (Rome) between 27th and the 31st of March 2017