We explore the possibility of formation of steady internal shocks in jets around black holes. We consider a fluid described by a relativistic equation of state, flowing about the axis of symmetry ($\theta=0$) in a Schwarzschild metric. We use two models for the jet geometry, (i) a conical geometry and (ii) a geometry with non-conical cross-section. Jet with conical geometry is smooth flow. While the jet with non-conical cross section undergoes multiple sonic point and even standing shock. The jet shock becomes stronger, as the shock location is situated further from the central black hole. Jets with very high energy and very low energy do not harbour shocks, but jets with intermediate energies do harbour shocks. One advantage of these shocks, as opposed to shocks mediated by external medium is that, these shocks have no effect on the jet terminal speed, %while but may act as possible sites for particle acceleration. Typically, a jet with energy $1.8~c^2$, will achieve a terminal speed of $v_\infty=0.813c$ for jet with any geometry. But for a jet of non-conical cross-section for which the length scale of the inner torus of the accretion disc is $40\rg$, then in addition, a steady shock will form at $\rsh \sim 7.5\rg$ and compression ratio of $R\sim 2.7$. Moreover, electron-proton jet seems to harbour the strongest shock. We discuss possible consequences of such a scenario.
M. Vyas and I. Chattopadhyay
Fri, 21 Apr 17
Comments: 36 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS on 20th April 2017