Reconstructing warm inflation [CL]

The reconstruction of a warm inflationary universe model from the scalar spectral index $n_S(N)$ and the tensor to scalar ratio $r(N)$ as a function of the number of e-folds $N$ is studied. Under a general formalism we find the effective potential and the dissipative coefficient in terms of the cosmological parameters $n_S$ and $r$ considering the weak and strong dissipative stages under the slow roll approximation. As a specific example, we study the attractors for the index $n_S$ given by $n_{S}-1\propto N^{-1}$ and for the ratio $r\propto N^{-2}$, in order to reconstruct the model of warm inflation. Here, expressions for the effective potential $V(\phi)$ and the dissipation coefficient $\Gamma(\phi)$ are obtained.

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R. Herrera
Wed, 17 Jan 18

Comments: 23 pages and 2 figures

Beyond Falsifiability: Normal Science in a Multiverse [CL]

Cosmological models that invoke a multiverse – a collection of unobservable regions of space where conditions are very different from the region around us – are controversial, on the grounds that unobservable phenomena shouldn’t play a crucial role in legitimate scientific theories. I argue that the way we evaluate multiverse models is precisely the same as the way we evaluate any other models, on the basis of abduction, Bayesian inference, and empirical success. There is no scientifically respectable way to do cosmology without taking into account different possibilities for what the universe might be like outside our horizon. Multiverse theories are utterly conventionally scientific, even if evaluating them can be difficult in practice.

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S. Carroll
Wed, 17 Jan 18

Comments: Invited contribution to “Epistemology of Fundamental Physics: Why Trust a Theory?”, eds. R. Dawid, R. Dardashti, and K. Th\’ebault (Cambridge University Press)

Neutrino masses and their ordering: Global Data, Priors and Models [CL]

We present a Bayesian analysis of the combination of current neutrino oscillation, neutrinoless double beta decay and CMB observations. Our major goal is to carefully investigate the possibility to single out one neutrino mass ordering, Normal Ordering or Inverted Ordering, with current data. Two possible parametrizations (three neutrino masses versus the lightest neutrino mass plus the two oscillation mass splittings) and priors (linear versus logarithmic) are examined. We find that the preference for NO is only driven by neutrino oscillation data. Moreover, the values of the Bayes factor indicate that the evidence for NO is strong only when the scan is performed over the three neutrino masses with logarithmic priors; for every other combination of parameterization and prior, the preference for NO is only weak. As a by-product of our Bayesian analyses, we are able to a) compare the Bayesian bounds on the neutrino mixing parameters to those obtained by means of frequentist approaches, finding a very good agreement; b) determine that the lightest neutrino mass plus the two mass splittings parametrization, motivated by the physical observables, is strongly preferred over the three neutrino mass eigenstates scan and c) find that there is a weak-to-moderate preference for logarithmic priors. These results establish the optimal strategy to successfully explore the neutrino parameter space, based on the use of the oscillation mass splittings and a logarithmic prior on the lightest neutrino mass. We also show that the limits on the total neutrino mass $\sum m_\nu$ can change dramatically when moving from one prior to the other. These results have profound implications for future studies on the neutrino mass ordering, as they crucially state the need for self-consistent analyses which explore the best parametrization and priors, without combining results that involve different assumptions.

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S. Gariazzo, M. Archidiacono, P. Salas, et. al.
Wed, 17 Jan 18

Comments: 21 pages, 5 figures, 6 tables

Advances in mean-field dynamo theory and applications to astrophysical turbulence [CL]

Recent advances in mean-field theory are reviewed and applications to the Sun, late-type stars, accretion disks, galaxies, and the early Universe are discussed. We focus particularly on aspects of spatio-temporal nonlocality, which is one of the main insights that emerged from applying the test-field method to magnetic fields of different length and timescales. We also review the status of nonlinear quenching and the relation to magnetic helicity, which is an important observational diagnostic of modern solar dynamo theory. Both solar and some stellar dynamos seem to operate in an intermediate regime that has not yet been possible to model successfully. This regime is bracketed by antisolar-like differential rotation on one end and stellar activity cycles belonging to the superactive stars on the other. The difficulty in modeling this regime may be related to shortcomings in modelling solar/stellar convection. On galactic and extragalactic length scales, the observational constraints are still less stringent and uncertain, but recent advances both in theory and in observations suggest that more conclusive comparisons may soon be possible. The possibility of inversely cascading magnetic helicity throughout all of the early Universe is particularly exciting in explaining the lower limits of magnetic fields on cosmological length scales and the possibility of parity breaking and finite helicity of such a field.

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A. Brandenburg
Wed, 17 Jan 18

Comments: 47 pages, 11 figures, submitted to J. Plasma Phys

Singularities in Spherically Symmetric Solutions with Limited Curvature Invariants [CL]

We investigate static, spherically symmetric solutions in gravitational theories which have limited curvature invariants, aiming to remove the singularity in the Schwarzschild space-time. We find that if we only limit the Gauss-Bonnet term and the Ricci scalar, then the singularity at the origin persists. Moreover we find that the event horizon can develop a curvature singularity. We also investigate a new class of theories in which all components of the Riemann tensor are bounded. We find that the divergence of the quadratic curvature invariants at the event horizon is avoidable in this theory. However, other kinds of singularities due to the dynamics of additional degrees of freedom cannot be removed, and the space-time remains singular.

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D. Yoshida and R. Brandenberger
Wed, 17 Jan 18

Comments: 17 pages, 17 figures

Neutron Anomalous Magnetic Moment in Dense Magnetized Systems [CL]

In this work, we calculate the neutron anomalous magnetic moment supposing that this value can depend on the density and magnetic field of system. We employ the lowest order constraint variation (LOCV) method and $AV_{18}$ nuclear potential to calculate the medium dependency of the neutron anomalous magnetic moment. It is confirmed that the neutron anomalous magnetic moment increases by increasing the density, while it decreases as the magnetic field grows. The energy and equation of state for the system have also been investigated.

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Z. Rezaei
Wed, 17 Jan 18

Comments: 14 pages, 6 figures. Accepted for publication in IJMPE

Absolute stability window and upper bound on the magnetic field strength in a strongly magnetized strange quark star [CL]

Magnetized strange quark stars, composed of strange quark matter (SQM) and self-bound by strong interactions, can be formed if the energy per baryon of magnetized SQM is less than that of the most stable $^{56}$Fe nucleus under the zero external pressure and temperature. Utilizing the MIT bag model description of magnetized SQM under charge neutrality and beta equilibrium conditions, the corresponding absolute stability window in the parameter space of the theory is determined. It is shown that there exists the maximum magnetic field strength allowed by the condition of absolute stability of magnetized SQM. The value of this field, $H\sim3\cdot10^{18}$ G, represents the upper bound on the magnetic field strength which can be reached in a strongly magnetized strange quark star.

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A. Isayev
Wed, 17 Jan 18

Comments: 9 pages, 2 figures. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1501.07772