Clustering of gamma-ray burst types in the Fermi-GBM catalogue: indications of photosphere and synchrotron emissions during the prompt phase [HEAP]

Many different physical processes have been suggested to explain the prompt gamma-ray emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although there are examples of both bursts with photospheric and synchrotron emission origins, these distinct spectral appearances have not been generalized to large samples of GRBs. Here, we search for signatures of the different emission mechanisms in the full Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope GBM catalogue. We use Gaussian Mixture Models to cluster bursts according to their parameters from the Band function ($\alpha$, $\beta$, and $E_{pk}$) as well as their fluence and $T_{90}$. We find five distinct clusters. We further argue that these clusters can be divided into bursts of photospheric origin (2/3 of all bursts, divided into 3 clusters) and bursts of synchrotron origin (1/3 of all bursts, divided into 2 clusters). For instance, the cluster that contains predominantly short bursts is consistent of photospheric emission origin. We discuss several reasons that can determine which cluster a burst belongs to: jet dissipation pattern and/or the jet content, or viewing angle.

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Z. Acuner and F. Ryde
Wed, 6 Dec 17

Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS