Planetary Systems around Low-mass Stars Unveiled by K2 [EPA]

We present the detection and follow-up observations of planetary candidates around low-mass stars observed by the {\it K2} mission. Based on light-curve analysis, adaptive-optics imaging, and optical spectroscopy at low and high resolution (including radial velocity measurements), we validate 16 planets around 12 low-mass stars observed during {\it K2} campaigns 5–10. Among the 16 planets, 12 are newly validated, with orbital periods ranging from 0.96–33 days. For one of the planets (EPIC 220621087.01) we present ground-based transit photometry, allowing us to refine the ephemerides. We also identify EPIC 220187552 as a false positive, based on the multiple stars seen in a high-resolution image and double lines in a high-resolution spectrum. Combining our {\it K2} M-dwarf planets together with the validated or confirmed planets found previously, we investigate the dependence of planet radius $R_p$ on stellar insolation and metallicity [Fe/H]. We confirm that medium-sized planets ($R_p=2-5~R_\oplus$) seem to have experienced shrinkage — plausibly due to photoevaporation — and we find evidence that the shrinkage occurs at lower insolation for the coolest M dwarfs. Planets larger than $\approx3~R_\oplus$ are only found around the most metal-rich M dwarfs, and for the coolest M dwarfs ($\lesssim3500$ K) there appears to be a correlation between planet size and metallicity.

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T. Hirano, F. Dai, D. Gandolfi, et. al.
Wed, 11 Oct 17

Comments: 26 pages, 21 figures, 5 tables, Submitted to AAS Journals