We study Planck 2015 cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy data using the energy density inhomogeneity power spectrum generated by quantum fluctuations during an early epoch of inflation in the non-flat XCDM model. Here dark energy is parameterized using a fluid with a negative equation of state parameter but with the speed of fluid acoustic inhomogeneities set to the speed of light. We use this simple parameterization of dynamical dark energy, that is relatively straightforward to use in a computation, in a first attempt to gain some insight into how dark energy dynamics and non-zero spatial curvature jointly affect the CMB anisotropy data constraints. Unlike earlier analyses of non-flat models, we use a physically consistent power spectrum for energy density inhomogeneities. We find that the Planck 2015 data in conjunction with baryon acoustic oscillation measurements are reasonably well fit by a closed XCDM model in which spatial curvature contributes a percent of the current cosmological energy density budget. In this model, the measured Hubble constant and non-relativistic matter density parameter are in good agreement with values determined using most other data. Depending on parameter values, the closed XCDM model has reduced power, relative to the tilted, spatially-flat $\Lambda$CDM case, and appears to partially alleviate the low multipole CMB temperature anisotropy deficit and can help partially reconcile the CMB anisotropy and weak lensing $\sigma_8$ constraints, at the expense of somewhat worsening the fit to higher multipole CMB temperature anisotropy data. However, the closed XCDM inflation model does not seem to improve the agreement much, if at all, compared to the closed $\Lambda$CDM inflation case, even though it has one more free parameter. Our results are interesting but tentative; a more thorough analysis is needed to properly gauge their significance.
J. Ooba, B. Ratra and N. Sugiyama
Wed, 11 Oct 17
Comments: 10 pages, 11 figures, 3 tables. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1707.03452