Crowding Out of Giants by Dwarfs: an Origin for the Lack of Companion Planets in Hot Jupiter Systems

We investigate formation of close-in terrestrial planets from planetary embryos under the influence of a hot Jupiter (HJ) using gravitational N-body simulations that include gravitational interactions between the gas disk and the terrestrial planet (e.g., type I migration). Our simulations show that several terrestrial planets efficiently form outside the orbit of the HJ, making a chain of planets, and all of them gravitationally interact directly or indirectly with the HJ through resonance, which leads to inward migration of the HJ. We call this mechanism of induced migration of the HJ as “crowding out.” The HJ is eventually lost by collision with the central star, and only several terrestrial planets remain. We also find that the efficiency of the crowding-out effect depends on model parameters; for example, the heavier the disk is, the more efficient the crowding out is. When planet formation occurs in a massive disk, the HJ can be lost to the central star and is never observed. On the other hand, for a less massive disk, the HJ and terrestrial planets can coexist; however, the companion planets can be below the detection limit of current observations. In both cases, systems with the HJ and terrestrial planets have little chance for detection. Therefore, our model naturally explains the lack of companion planets in HJ systems regardless of the disk mass. In effect, our model provide a theoretical prediction for future observations; additional planets can be discovered just outside the HJ, and their masses should generally be small.

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Date added: Wed, 9 Oct 13