Evidence that the Directly-Imaged Planet HD 131399 Ab is a Background Star [EPA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1705.06851


We present evidence that the recently discovered, directly-imaged planet HD 131399 Ab is a background star with non-zero proper motion. From new JHK1L’ photometry and spectroscopy obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager, VLT/SPHERE, and Keck/NIRC2, and a reanalysis of the discovery data obtained with VLT/SPHERE, we derive colors, spectra, and astrometry for HD 131399 Ab. The broader wavelength coverage and higher data quality allow us to re-investigate its status. Its near-infrared spectral energy distribution excludes spectral types later than L0 and is consistent with a K or M dwarf, which are the most likely candidates for a background object in this direction at the apparent magnitude observed. If it were a physically associated object, the projected velocity of HD 131399 Ab would exceed escape velocity given the mass and distance to HD 131399 A. We show that HD 131399 Ab is also not following the expected track for a stationary background star at infinite distance. Solving for the proper motion and parallax required to explain the relative motion of HD 131399 Ab, we find a proper motion of 12.3 mas/yr. When compared to predicted background objects drawn from a galactic model, we find this proper motion to be high, but consistent with the top 4% fastest-moving background stars. From our analysis we conclude that HD 131399 Ab is a background K or M dwarf.

Read this paper on arXiv…

E. Nielsen, R. Rosa, J. Rameau, et. al.
Mon, 22 May 17
7/51

Comments: 35 pages, 20 figures. Submitted to AJ

Unusual rainbows as auroral candidates: another point of view [SSA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1705.06773


Several auroral events that occurred in the past have not been catalogued as such due to fact that they were described in the historical sources with different terminology. Hayakawa et al. (2016) have reviewed historical oriental chronicles and have proposed the terms “unusual rainbow” and “white rainbow” as candidates to auroras. In this work, we present three events that took place in the 18th century in two different settings (the Iberian Peninsula and Brazil) that were originally described with similar definition/wording used by the oriental chronicles, despite the inherent differences in terms associated to oriental and Latin languages. We show that these terms are indeed applicable to the three case studies from Europe and South America. Thus, the auroral catalogues available can be extended for occidental sources with this new terminology.

Read this paper on arXiv…

V. Carrasco, R. Trigo and J. Vaquero
Mon, 22 May 17
10/51

Comments: 6 pages, accepted for publication in Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn

Photometric and spectroscopic variability of the B5IIIe star HD 171219 [SSA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1705.06971


We analyzed the star HD 171219, one of the relatively bright Be stars observed in the seismo field of the CoRoT satellite, in order to determine its physical and pulsation characteristics. Classical Be stars are main-sequence objects of mainly B-type, whose spectra show, or had shown at some epoch, Balmer lines in emission and an infrared excess. Both characteristics are attributed to an equatorially concentrated circumstellar disk fed by non-periodic mass-loss episodes (outbursts). Be stars often show nonradial pulsation gravity modes and, as more recently discovered, stochastically excited oscillations. Applying the CLEANEST algorithm to the high-cadence and highly photometrically precise measurements of the HD 171219 light curve led us to perform an unprecedented detailed analysis of its nonradial pulsations. Tens of frequencies have been detected in the object compatible with nonradial g-modes. Additional high-resolution ground-based spectroscopic observations were obtained at La Silla (HARPS) and Haute Provence (SOPHIE) observatories during the month preceding CoRoT observations. Additional information was obtained from low-resolution spectra from the BeSS database. From spectral line fitting we determined physical parameters of the star, which is seen equator-on. We also found in the ground data the same frequencies as in CoRoT data. Additionally, we analyzed the circumstellar activity through the traditional method of V/R emission H{\alpha} line variation. A quintuplet was identified at approximately 1.113 c/d (12.88 {\mu}Hz) with a separation of 0.017 c/d that can be attributed to a pulsation degree l~2. The light curve shows six small- to medium-scale outbursts during the CoRoT observations. The intensity of the main frequencies varies after each outburst, suggesting a possible correlation between the nonradial pulsations regime and the feeding of the envelope.

Read this paper on arXiv…

L. Andrade, E. Janot-Pacheco, M. Emilio, et. al.
Mon, 22 May 17
16/51

Comments: 7 pages, 10 figures

On the existence of young embedded clusters at high Galactic latitude [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1705.06748


Careful analyses of photometric and star count data available for the nine putative young clusters identified by Camargo et al. (2015, 2016) at high Galactic latitudes reveal that none of the groups contain early-type stars, and most are not significant density enhancements above field level. 2MASS colours for stars in the groups match those of unreddened late-type dwarfs and giants, as expected for contamination by (mostly) thin disk objects. A simulation of one such field using only typical high latitude foreground stars yields a colour-magnitude diagram that is very similar to those constructed by Camargo et al. (2015, 2016) as evidence for their young groups as well as the means of deriving their reddenings and distances. Although some of the fields are coincident with clusters of galaxies, one must conclude that there is no evidence that the putative clusters are extremely young stellar groups.

Read this paper on arXiv…

D. Turner, G. Carraro and E. Panko
Mon, 22 May 17
18/51

Comments: Accepted for publication (MNRAS)

Isochrones of M67 with an Expanded Set of Parameters [SSA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1705.06761


We create isochrones of M67 using the Yale Rotating Stellar Evolution Code. In addition to metallicity, parameters that are traditionally held fixed, such as the mixing length parameter and initial helium abundance, also vary. The amount of convective overshoot is also changed in different sets of isochrones. Models are constructed both with and without diffusion. From the resulting isochrones that fit the cluster, the age range is between 3.6 and 4.8 Gyr and the distance is between 755 and 868 pc. We also confirm Michaud et al. (2004) claim that M67 can be fit without overshoot if diffusion is included.

Read this paper on arXiv…

L. Viani and S. Basu
Mon, 22 May 17
19/51

Comments: 4 pages, 3 figures, to appear in the proceedings of the joint TASC2/KASC9/SPACEINN/HELAS8 conference “Seismology of the Sun and the Distant Stars 2016”

New Cataclysmic Variables and other Exotic Binaries in the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae [SSA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1705.07100


We present 22 new (+3 confirmed) cataclysmic variables (CVs) in the non core-collapsed globular cluster 47 Tucanae (47 Tuc). The total number of CVs in the cluster is now 43, the largest sample in any globular cluster so far. For the identifications we used near-ultraviolet (NUV) and optical images from the Hubble Space Telescope, in combination with X-ray results from the Chandra X-ray Observatory. This allowed us to build the deepest NUV CV luminosity function of the cluster. We found that the CVs in 47 Tuc are more concentrated towards the cluster center than the main sequence turnoff stars. We compared our results to the CV populations of the core-collapsed globular clusters NGC 6397 and NGC 6752. We found that 47 Tuc has fewer bright CVs per unit mass than those two other clusters. That suggests that dynamical interactions in core-collapsed clusters play a major role creating new CVs. In 47 Tuc, the CV population is probably dominated by primordial and old dynamically formed systems. We estimated that the CVs in 47 Tuc have total masses of approx. 1.4 M_sun. We also found that the X-ray luminosity function of the CVs in the three clusters is bimodal. Additionally, we discuss a possible double degenerate system and an intriguing/unclassified object. Finally, we present four systems that could be millisecond pulsar companions given their X-ray and NUV/optical colors. For one of them we present very strong evidence for being an ablated companion. The other three could be CO- or He-WDs.

Read this paper on arXiv…

L. Sandoval, M. Berg, C. Heinke, et. al.
Mon, 22 May 17
22/51

Comments: Submitted to MNRAS. 29 Pages, 20 Figures, 5 Tables

Solar cycle indices from the photosphere to the corona: measurements and underlying physics [SSA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1705.07054


A variety of indices have been proposed in order to represent the many different observables modulated by the solar cycle. Most of these indices are highly correlated with each other owing to their intrinsic link with the solar magnetism and the dominant eleven year cycle, but their variations may differ in fine details, as well as on short- and long-term trends. In this paper we present an overview of the indices that are often employed to describe the many features of the solar cycle, moving from the ones referring to direct observations of the inner solar atmosphere, the photosphere and chromosphere, to those deriving from measurements of the transition region and solar corona. For each index, we summarize existing measurements {\bf and typical use}, and for those that quantify physical observables, we describe the underlying physics.

Read this paper on arXiv…

I. Ermolli, K. Shibasaki, A. Tlatov, et. al.
Mon, 22 May 17
23/51

Comments: N/A