Machine Learning Based Real Bogus System for HSC-SSP Moving Object Detecting Pipeline [IMA]

The machine learning techniques are widely applied in many modern optical sky surveys, i.e. Pan-STARRS1, PTF/iPTF and Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam survey, to reduce the human intervention for data verification. In this study, we have established a machine learning based real-bogus system to reject the false detections in the HSC-SSP source catalog. Therefore the HSC-SSP moving object detection pipeline can operate more effectively due to the much less false positives inputs. To train the real-bogus system, we use the stationary sources as the real training set and the `flagged’ data as the bogus set. The training set contains 49 features, which, in majority, are the photometry measurements and shape moments generating from the HSC image reduction pipeline (hscPipe). Our system can reach a true positive rate (tpr) ~ 96% with a false positive rate (fpr) ~ 1% or tpr ~ 99% at fpr ~ 5%. Therefore we conclude that the stationary sources are decent real training samples, and using photometry measurements and shape moments can reject the false positives effectively.

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H. Lin, Y. Chen, J. Wang, et. al.
Mon, 24 Apr 17

Comments: 16 pages, 4 figures, submitted to PASJ HSC special issue

Mirror Position Determination for the Alignment of Cherenkov Telescopes [IMA]

Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) need imaging optics with large apertures to map the faint Cherenkov light emitted in extensive air showers onto their image sensors. Segmented reflectors fulfill these needs using mass produced and light weight mirror facets. However, as the overall image is the sum of the individual mirror facet images, alignment is important. Here we present a method to determine the mirror facet positions on a segmented reflector in a very direct way. Our method reconstructs the mirror facet positions from photographs and a laser distance meter measurement which goes from the center of the image sensor plane to the center of each mirror facet. We use our method to both align the mirror facet positions and to feed the measured positions into our IACT simulation. We demonstrate our implementation on the 4 m First Geiger-mode Avalanche Cherenkov Telescope (FACT).

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J. Adam, M. Ahnen, D. Baack, et. al.
Mon, 24 Apr 17

Comments: 11 figures, small ray tracing performance simulation, and implementation demonstration

Modeling the effect of small-scale magnetic turbulence on the X-ray properties of Pulsar Wind Nebulae [HEAP]

Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe) constitute an ideal astrophysical environment to test our current understanding of relativistic plasma processes. It is well known that magnetic fields play a crucial role in their dynamics and emission properties. At present, one of the main issues concerns the level of magnetic turbulence present in these systems, which in the absence of space resolved X-ray polarization measures cannot be directly constrained. In this work we investigate, for the first time using simulated synchrotron maps, the effect of a small scale fluctuating component of the magnetic field on the emission properties in X-ray. We illustrate how to include the effects of a turbulent component in standard emission models for PWNe, and which consequences are expected in terms of net emissivity and depolarization, showing that the X-ray surface brightness maps can provide already some rough constraints. We then apply our analysis to the Crab and Vela nebulae and, by comparing our model with Chandra and Vela data, we found that the typical energies in the turbulent component of the magnetic field are about 1.5 to 3 times the one in the ordered field.

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N. Bucciantini, R. Bandiera, B. Olmi, et. al.
Mon, 24 Apr 17

Comments: 9 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS

Reliability of the measured velocity anisotropy of the Milky Way stellar halo [GA]

Determining the velocity distribution of halo stars is essential for estimating the mass of the Milky Way and for inferring its formation history. Since the stellar halo is a dynamically hot system, the velocity distribution of halo stars is well described by the 3-dimensional velocity dispersions $(\sigma_r, \sigma_\theta, \sigma_\phi)$, or by the velocity anisotropy parameter $\beta=1-(\sigma_\theta^2+\sigma_\phi^2)/(2\sigma_r^2)$. Direct measurements of $(\sigma_r, \sigma_\theta, \sigma_\phi)$ consistently suggest $\beta =0.5$-$0.7$ for nearby halo stars. In contrast, the value of $\beta$ at large Galactocentric radius $r$ is still controversial, since reliable proper motion data are available for only a handful of stars. In the last decade, several authors have tried to estimate $\beta$ for distant halo stars by fitting the observed line-of-sight velocities at each radius with simple velocity distribution models (local fitting methods). Some results of local fitting methods imply $\beta<0$ at $r \gtrsim 20 \;\rm{kpc}$, which is inconsistent with recent predictions from cosmological simulations. Here we perform mock-catalogue analyses to show that the estimates of $\beta$ based on local fitting methods are reliable only at $r \leq 15 \;\rm{kpc}$ with the current sample size ($\sim10^3$ stars at a given radius). As $r$ increases, the line-of-sight velocity (corrected for the Solar reflex motion) becomes increasingly closer to the Galactocentric radial velocity, so that it becomes increasingly more difficult to estimate tangential velocity dispersion $(\sigma_\theta, \sigma_\phi)$ from line-of-sight velocity distribution. Our results suggest that the forthcoming Gaia data will be crucial for understanding the velocity distribution of halo stars at $r \geq 20\;\rm{kpc}$.

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K. Hattori, M. Valluri, S. Loebman, et. al.
Mon, 24 Apr 17

Comments: ApJ submitted. Comments welcome. 20 pages (14 pages + 6 pages for Appendix). 13 figures. Main result: Fig 7. Schematic diagram: Fig 9. Companion paper to Loebman et al. (2017)

Lunar laser ranging in infrfared at hte Grasse laser station [IMA]

For many years, lunar laser ranging (LLR) observations using a green wavelength have suffered an inhomogeneity problem both temporally and spatially. This paper reports on the implementation of a new infrared detection at the Grasse LLR station and describes how infrared telemetry improves this situation. Our first results show that infrared detection permits us to densify the observations and allows measurements during the new and the full Moon periods. The link budget improvement leads to homogeneous telemetric measurements on each lunar retro-reflector. Finally, a surprising result is obtained on the Lunokhod 2 array which attains the same efficiency as Lunokhod 1 with an infrared laser link, although those two targets exhibit a differential efficiency of six with a green laser link.

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C. Courde, J. Torre, E. Samain, et. al.
Mon, 24 Apr 17

Comments: N/A

Removing visual bias in filament identification: a new goodness-of-fit measure [IMA]

Different combinations of input parameters to filament identification algorithms, such as Disperse and FilFinder, produce numerous different output skeletons. The skeletons are a one pixel wide representation of the filamentary structure in the original input image. However, these output skeletons may not necessarily be a good representation of that structure. Furthermore, a given skeleton may not be as good a representation as another. Previously there has been no mathematical goodness-of-fit' measure to compare output skeletons to the input image. Thus far this has been assessed visually, introducing visual bias. We propose the application of the mean structural similarity index (MSSIM) as a mathematical goodness-of-fit measure. We describe the use of the MSSIM to find the output skeletons most mathematically similar to the original input image (the optimum, orbest’, skeletons) for a given algorithm, and independently of the algorithm. This measure makes possible systematic parameter studies, aimed at finding the subset of input parameter values returning optimum skeletons. It can also be applied to the output of non-skeleton based filament identification algorithms, such as the Hessian matrix method. The MSSIM removes the need to visually examine thousands of output skeletons, and eliminates the visual bias, subjectivity, and limited reproducibility inherent in that process, representing a major improvement on existing techniques. Importantly, it also allows further automation in the post-processing of output skeletons, which is crucial in this era of `big data’.

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C. Green, M. Cunningham, J. Dawson, et. al.
Mon, 24 Apr 17

Comments: 8 pages, 3 figures, Accepted for publication in ApJL, April 2017

Displacement Damage dose and DLTS Analyses on Triple and Single Junction solar cells irradiated with electrons and protons [CL]

Space solar cells radiation hardness is of fundamental importance in view of the future missions towards harsh radiation environment (like e.g. missions to Jupiter) and for the new spacecraft using electrical propulsion. In this paper we report the radiation data for triple junction (TJ) solar cells and related component cells. Triple junction solar cells, InGaP top cells and GaAs middle cells degrade after electron radiation as expected. With proton irradiation, a high spread in the remaining factors was observed, especially for the TJ and bottom cells. Very surprising was the germanium bottom junction that showed very high degradation after protons whereas it is quite stable against electrons. Radiation results have been analyzed by means of the Displacement Damage Dose method and DLTS spectroscopy.

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C. Baur, R. Campesato, M. Casale, et. al.
Mon, 24 Apr 17

Comments: Abstract accepted for poster session at 2017 IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference, July 17-21, New Orleans