Neutrino telescope searches for dark matter in the Sun [CL]

I give a brief review of a few recent developments and future directions in the search for dark matter using high-energy neutrinos from the Sun. This includes the ability to recast neutrino telescope limits on nuclear scattering of dark matter to arbitrary new theories, and new calculations of the solar atmospheric background relevant to such searches. I also touch on applications to global searches for new physics, and prospects for improving searches for asymmetric dark matter in the Sun.

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P. Scott
Tue, 17 Oct 17

Comments: 7 pages, 4 figures, to appear in the Proceedings of Rencontres du Vietnam: Exploring the Dark Universe, Quy Nhon, Vietnam, July 23-28

Search for Dark Matter Effects on Gravitational Signals from Neutron Star Mergers [CEA]

Motivated by the recent detection of the gravitational wave signal emitted by a binary neutron star merger, we analyse the possible impact of dark matter on such signals. We show that dark matter cores in merging neutron stars may yield an observable supplementary peak in the gravitational wave power spectral density following the merger, which could be distinguished from the features produced by the neutron components.

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J. Ellis, A. Hektor, G. Hutsi, et. al.
Tue, 17 Oct 17

Comments: 4 pages, 4 figures

Dark Energy after GW170817 [CEA]

The observation of GW170817 and its electromagnatic counterpart implies that gravitational waves travel at the speed of light, with deviations smaller than a few parts in $10^{-15}$. We discuss the consequences of this experimental result for models of dark energy and modified gravity characterized by a single scalar degree of freedom. To avoid tuning, the speed of gravitational waves must be unaffected not only for our particular cosmological solution, but also for nearby solutions obtained by slightly changing the matter abundance. For this to happen the coefficients of various operators must satisfy precise relations that we discuss both in the language of the Effective Field Theory of Dark Energy and in the covariant one, for Horndeski, beyond Horndeski and degenerate higher-order theories. The simplification is dramatic: of the three functions describing quartic and quintic beyond Horndeski theories, only one remains and reduces to a standard conformal coupling to the Ricci scalar for Horndeski theories. We show that the deduced relations among operators do not introduce further tuning of the models, since they are stable under quantum corrections.

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P. Creminelli and F. Vernizzi
Tue, 17 Oct 17

Comments: 5 pages

Implications of the Neutron Star Merger GW170817 for Cosmological Scalar-Tensor Theories [CEA]

The LIGO/VIRGO collaboration has recently announced the detection of gravitational waves from a neutron star-neutron star merger (GW170817) and the simultaneous measurement of an optical counterpart (the gamma-ray burst GRB 170817A). The close arrival time of the gravitational and electromagnetic waves limits the difference in speed of photons and gravitons to be less than about one part in $10^{15}$. This has three important implications for cosmological scalar-tensor gravity theories that are often touted as dark energy candidates and alternatives to $\Lambda$CDM. First, for the most general scalar-tensor theories—beyond Horndeski models—three of the five parameters appearing in the effective theory of dark energy can now be severely constrained on astrophysical scales; we present the results of combining the new gravity wave results with galaxy cluster observations. Second, the combination with the lack of strong equivalence principle violations exhibited by the supermassive black hole in M87, constrains the quartic galileon model to be cosmologically irrelevant. Finally, we derive a new bound on the disformal coupling to photons that implies that such couplings are irrelevant for the cosmic evolution of the field.

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J. Sakstein and B. Jain
Tue, 17 Oct 17

Comments: five pages, two figures

Current and Future White Dwarf Mass-radius Constraints on Varying Fundamental Couplings and Unification Scenarios [CEA]

We discuss the feasibility of using astrophysical observations of white dwarfs as probes of fundamental physics. We quantify the effects of varying fundamental couplings on the white dwarf mass-radius relation in a broad class of unification scenarios, both for the simple case of a polytropic stellar structure model and for more general models. Independent measurements of the mass and radius, together with direct spectroscopic measurements of the fine-structure constant in white dwarf atmospheres lead to constraints on combinations of the two phenomenological parameters describing the underlying unification scenario (one of which is related to the strong sector of the theory while the other is related to the electroweak sector). While currently available measurements do not yet provide stringent constraints, we show that forthcoming improvements, expected for example from the Gaia satellite, can break parameter degeneracies and lead to constraints that ideally complement those obtained from local laboratory tests using atomic clocks.

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D. Magano, J. Boas and C. Martins
Tue, 17 Oct 17

Comments: 11 pages, 8 figures

Model of the Phase Transition Mimicking the Pasta Phase in Cold and Dense Quark-Hadron Matter [HEAP]

A simple mixed phase model mimicking so-called “pasta” phases in the quark-hadron phase transition is developed and applied to static neutron stars for the case of DD2 type hadonic and NJL type quark matter models. The influence of the mixed phase on the mass-radius relation of the compact stars is investigated. Model parameters are chosen such that the results are in agreement with the observational constraints for masses and radii of pulsars.

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A. Ayriyan and H. Grigorian
Tue, 17 Oct 17

Comments: N/A

Viscous Warm Inflation: Hamilton-Jacobi formalism [CEA]

Using Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, The scenario of warm inflation with viscous pressure is considered. The formalism gives a way of computing the slow-rolling parameters without extra approximation, and it is well-known as a powerful method in cold inflation. The model is studied in detail for three different cases of dissipation and bulk viscous pressure coefficients. In the first case where both coefficients are taken as a constant, it is shown that the case could not portray warm inflationary scenario compatible with observational data even it is possible to restrict the model parameters. For other cases, the results shows that the model could properly predicts the perturbation parameters in which they stay in perfect agreement with Planck data. As a further argument, $r-n_s$ and $\alpha_s-n_s$ are drown that show the required result could stand in acceptable area expressing a compatibility with observational data.

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L. Akhtari, A. Mohammadi, K. Sayar, et. al.
Tue, 17 Oct 17

Comments: 20 pages, 11 figures