On white holes as particle accelerators [CL]


We analyze scenarios of particle collisions in the metric of a nonextremal black hole that can potentially lead to ultrahigh energy $E_{c.m.}$ in their centre of mass frame. Particle 1 comes from infinity to the black hole horizon while particle 2 emerges from a white hole region. It is shown that unbounded $E_{c.m.}$ $\ $require that particle 2 pass close to the bifurcation point. The analogy with collisions inside the horizon is discussed.

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O. Zaslavskii
Wed, 26 Jul 17

Comments: 9 pages. 2 figures

Anchoring polar magnetic field in a stationary thick accretion disk [HEAP]


We investigate the properties of a hot accretion flow bathed in a poloidal magnetic field. We consider an axisymmetric viscous resistive flow in the steady state configuration. We assume the dominant mechanism of energy dissipation is due to turbulence viscosity and magnetic diffusivity. A certain fraction of that energy can be advected towards the central compact object. We employ self-similar method in the radial direction to find a system of ODEs with just one varible, $\theta$ in the spherical coordinates. For the existence and maintaining of a purely poloidal magnetic in a rotating thick disk, we find the necessary condition is a constant value of angular velocity along a magnetic field line. We obtain an analytical solution for the poloidal magnetic flux. We explore possible changes in the vertical structure of the disk under the influences of even symmetric and asymmetric magnetic fields. Our results reveal that a polar magnetic field with even symmetry about the equatorial plane makes the disk vertically thin. Moreover, the accretion rate decreases when we consider a strong magnetic field. Finally, we notice hot magnetized accretion flows can be fully advected even in a slim shape.

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M. Samadi and S. Abbassi
Wed, 26 Jul 17

Comments: Accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journal

The FSRQ 3C 345 from the high to the low emission state [HEAP]


We report simultaneous observations at different energy bands in radio, optical, UV, X-rays and $\gamma$ rays of the flat-spectrum radio-quasar 3C 345. We built the light curve of the source at different frequencies from 2008, the beginning of the Fermi all-sky survey, to 2016, using new data and public archives. In particular we obtained several optical spectra, to study the behavior of emission lines and continuum in different activity states and to derive the black hole mass. 3C 345 showed two flaring episodes in 2009, which occurred simultaneously in $\gamma$ rays, optical/UV and X-rays, and were later followed in radio. The source shows an inverse Compton dominated spectral energy distribution, which moved from higher to lower frequencies from the high to the low state. The reverberation of emission lines during one outburst event allowed us to constrain the location of production of $\gamma$ rays very close to the broad-line region, and possibly in the jet-base. We report the observation of an increased accretion after the outburst, possibly induced by the decrease of magnetic field intensity with respect to the low state.

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M. Berton, N. Liao, G. Mura, et. al.
Wed, 26 Jul 17

Comments: 14 pages, 14 figures, 4 tables, submitted to Astronomy & Astrophysics

Enhanced gamma radiation toward the rotation axis from the immediate vicinity of extremely rotating black holes [GA]


We investigate the acceleration of electrons and positrons by magnetic-field-aligned electric fields in the polar funnel of an accreting black hole (BH). Applying the pulsar outer-gap theory to BH magnetospheres, we find that such a lepton accelerator arises in the immediate vicinity of the event horizon due to frame-dragging, and that their gamma-ray luminosity increases with decreasing accretion rate. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the gamma-ray flux is enhanced along the rotation axis by more than an order of magnitude if the BH spin increases from $a=0.90M$ to $a=0.9999M$. As a result, if a ten-solar-mass, almost-maximally rotating BH is located within 3 kpc, when its accretion rate is between 0.005% and 0.01% of the Eddington rate, its high-energy flare becomes detectable with the Fermi/Large Area Telescope, provided that the flare lasts longer than 1.2 months and that we view the source nearly along the rotation axis. In addition, its very-high-energy flux is marginally detectable with the Cherenkov Telescope Array, provided that the flare lasts longer than a night and that our viewing angle is about 45 degrees with respect to the rotation axis.

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Y. Song, H. Pu, K. Hirotani, et. al.
Wed, 26 Jul 17

Comments: 5 figures

Entrainment in Superfluid Neutron Star Crusts: Hydrodynamic Description and Microscopic Origin [HEAP]


In spite of the absence of viscous drag, the neutron superfluid permeating the inner crust of a neutron star cannot flow freely, and is entrained by the nuclear lattice similarly to laboratory superfluid atomic gases in optical lattices. The role of entrainment on the neutron superfluid dynamics is reviewed. For this purpose, a minimal hydrodynamical model of superfluidity in neutron-star crusts is presented. This model relies on a fully four-dimensionally covariant action principle. The equivalence of this formulation with the more traditional approach is demonstrated. In addition, the different treatments of entrainment in terms of dynamical effective masses or superfluid density are clarified. The nuclear energy density functional theory employed for the calculations of all the necessary microscopic inputs is also reviewed, focusing on superfluid properties. In particular, the microscopic origin of entrainment and the different methods to estimate its importance are discussed.

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N. Chamel
Wed, 26 Jul 17

Comments: 30 pages, 4 figures

A signature of anisotropic cosmic-ray transport in the gamma-ray sky [HEAP]


A crucial process in Galactic cosmic-ray (CR) transport is the spatial diffusion due to the interaction with the interstellar turbulent magnetic field. Usually, CR diffusion is assumed to be uniform and isotropic all across the Galaxy. However, this picture is clearly inaccurate: Several data-driven and theoretical arguments, as well as dedicated numerical simulations, show that diffusion exhibits highly anisotropic properties with respect to the direction of a background (ordered) magnetic field (i.e., parallel or perpendicular to it).
In this paper we focus on a recently discovered anomaly in the hadronic CR spectrum inferred by the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray data at different positions in the Galaxy, i.e. the progressive hardening of the proton slope at low Galactocentric radii. We propose the idea that this feature can be interpreted as a signature of anisotropic diffusion in the complex Galactic magnetic field: In particular, the harder slope in the inner Galaxy is due, in our scenario, to the parallel diffusive escape along the poloidal component of the large-scale, regular, magnetic field.
We implement this idea in a numerical framework, based on the DRAGON code, and perform detailed numerical tests on the accuracy of our setup. We discuss how the effect proposed depends on the relevant free parameters involved. Based on low-energy extrapolation of the few focused numerical simulations aimed at determining the scalings of the anisotropic diffusion coefficients, we finally present a set of plausible models that reproduce the behavior of the CR proton slopes inferred by gamma-ray data.

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S. Cerri, D. Gaggero, A. Vittino, et. al.
Wed, 26 Jul 17

Comments: 20 pages, 23 figures

Simultaneous spectra and radio properties of BL Lac's [GA]


We present the results of nine years of the blazar observing programme at the RATAN-600 radio telescope (2005-2014). The data were obtained at six frequency bands (1.1, 2.3, 4.8, 7.7, 11.2, 21.7 GHz) for 290 blazars, mostly BL Lacs. In addition, we used data at 37 GHz obtained quasi-simultaneously with the Metsahovi radio observatory for some sources. The sample includes blazars of three types: high-synchrotron peaked (HSP), low-synchrotron peaked (LSP), and intermediate-synchrotron peaked (ISP). We present several epochs of flux density measurements, simultaneous radio spectra, spectral indices and properties of their variability. The analysis of the radio properties of different classes of blazars showed that LSP and HSP BL Lac blazars are quite different objects on average. LSPs have higher flux densities, flatter spectra and their variability increases as higher frequencies are considered. On the other hand, HSPs are very faint in radio domain, tend to have steep low frequency spectra, and they are less variable than LSPs at all frequencies. Another result is spectral flattening above 7.7 GHz detected in HSPs, while an average LSP spectrum typically remains flat at both the low and high frequency ranges we considered.

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M. Mingaliev, Y. Sotnikova, T. Mufakharov, et. al.
Wed, 26 Jul 17

Comments: 14 pages, 6 figures. Accepted for publication in Astronomische Nachrichten