Gravitational effects of condensed dark matter on strange stars [CL]

In the present work we study the gravitational effects of condensed dark matter on strange stars. We consider self-interacting dark matter particles with properties consistent with current observational constraints, and dark matter inside the star is modelled as a Bose-Einstein condensate. We integrate numerically the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations in the two-fluid formalism assuming that strange stars are made of up to 4 per cent of dark matter. It is shown that for a mass of the dark matter particles in the range $50 MeV-160 MeV$ strange stars are characterized by a maximum mass and radius similar to the ones found for neutron stars.

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G. Panotopoulos and I. Lopes
Fri, 23 Jun 17

Comments: Two-column REVTEX, 5 pages, 3 figures

Are eikonal quasinormal modes linked to the unstable circular null geodesics? [CL]

In Phys. Rev. D 79, 064016 (2009) it was claimed that quasinormal modes which any stationary, spherically symmetric and asymptotically flat black hole emits in the eikonal regime are determined by the parameters of the circular null geodesic: the real and imaginary parts of the quasinormal mode are multiples of the frequency and instability timescale of the circular null geodesics respectively. We shall consider asymptotically flat black hole in the Einstein-Lovelock theory, find analytical expressions for gravitational quasinormal modes in the eikonal regime and analyze the null geodesics. Comparison of the both phenomena shows that the expected link between the null geodesics and quasinormal modes is violated in the Einstein-Lovelock theory. Nevertheless, the correspondence exists for a number of other cases and here we formulate its actual limits.

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R. Konoplya and Z. Stuchlik
Fri, 23 Jun 17

Comments: 8 pages, revtex, refereed version, accepted for publication in Physics Letters B

Apparent cosmic acceleration from type Ia supernovae [CEA]

Parameters that quantify the acceleration of cosmic expansion are conventionally determined within the standard Friedmann-Lema\^{\i}tre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) model, which fixes spatial curvature to be homogeneous. Generic averages of Einstein’s equations in inhomogeneous cosmology lead to models with non-rigidly evolving average spatial curvature, and different parameterizations of apparent cosmic acceleration. The timescape cosmology is a viable example of such a model without dark energy. Using the largest available supernova data set, the JLA catalogue, we find that the timescape model fits the luminosity distance-redshift data with a likelihood that is statistically indistinguishable from the standard spatially flat $\Lambda$CDM cosmology by Bayesian comparison. In the timescape case cosmic acceleration is non-zero but has a marginal amplitude, with best fit apparent deceleration parameter, $q_0=-0.042^{+0.04}_{-0.01}$. Systematic issues regarding standardization of supernova light curves are analysed. Cuts of data at the statistical homogeneity scale affect light curve parameter fits independent of cosmology. A cosmological model dependency of empirical changes to the mean colour parameter is also found. Irrespective of which model ultimately fits better, we argue that as a competitive model with a non-FLRW expansion history, the timescape model may prove a useful diagnostic tool for disentangling selection effects and astrophysical systematics from the underlying expansion history.

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L. Dam, A. Heinesen and D. Wiltshire
Fri, 23 Jun 17

Comments: 17 pages, 6 figures

Braneworld wormholes supported by astrophysical observations [CL]

In this study, we investigate the characteristics and properties of a traversable wormhole constrained by the current astrophysical observations in the framework of modified theories of gravity (MOG). As a concrete case, we study traversable wormhole space–time configurations in the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati (DGP) braneworld scenario, which are supported by the effects of the gravity leakage of extra dimensions. We find that the wormhole space–time structure will open in terms of the $2\sigma$ confidence level when we utilize the joint constraints supernovae (SNe) Ia + observational Hubble parameter data (OHD) + Planck + gravitational wave (GW) and $z<0.2874$. Furthermore, we obtain several model-independent conclusions, such as (i) the exotic matter threading the wormholes can be divided into four classes during the evolutionary processes of the universe based on various energy conditions; (ii) we can offer a strict restriction to the local wormhole space–time structure by using the current astrophysical observations; and (iii) we can clearly identify a physical gravitational resource for the wormholes supported by astrophysical observations, namely the dark energy components of the universe or equivalent space–time curvature effects from MOG. Moreover, we find that the strong energy condition is always violated at low redshifts.

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D. Wang and X. Meng
Thu, 22 Jun 17

Comments: 11 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publication in Frontiers of Physics

Kerr black holes with synchronised hair: an analytic model and dynamical formation [CL]

East and Pretorius (arXiv:1704.04791) have successfully evolved, using fully non-linear numerical simulations, the superradiant instability of the Kerr black hole (BH) triggered by a massive, complex vector field. Evolutions terminate in stationary states of a vector field condensate synchronised with a rotating BH horizon. We show these end points are fundamental states of Kerr BHs with synchronised Proca hair. Motivated by the “experimental data” from these simulations we suggest a universal (i.e. field-spin independent), analytic model for the subset of BHs with sychronised hair that possess a quasi-Kerr horizon, applicable in the weak hair regime. Comparing this model with fully non-linear numerical solutions of BHs with synchronised scalar or Proca hair, we show the model is accurate for hairy BHs that may emerge dynamically from superradiance, whose domain we identify.

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C. Herdeiro and E. Radu
Thu, 22 Jun 17

Comments: 5+2 pages, 7 figures; data files and Mathematica notebooks can be found in this URL: this http URL

Constraining sterile neutrino and dark energy with the latest cosmological observations [CEA]

We investigate how the dark energy properties change the cosmological limits on sterile neutrino parameters by using recent cosmological observations. We consider the simplest dynamical dark energy models, the $w$CDM model and the holographic dark energy (HDE) model to make an analysis. The cosmological observations used in this work include the Planck 2015 temperature and polarization data, the baryon acoustic oscillation data, the type Ia supernova data, the Hubble constant direct measurement data, and the CMB lensing measurement. We find that, $m_{\nu,{\rm{sterile}}}^{\rm{eff}}<0.2675$ eV and $N_{\rm eff}<3.5718$ for $\Lambda$CDM cosmology, $m_{\nu,{\rm{sterile}}}^{\rm{eff}}<0.5313$ eV and $N_{\rm eff}<3.5008$ for $w$CDM cosmology, and $m_{\nu,{\rm{sterile}}}^{\rm{eff}}<0.1989$ eV and $N_{\rm eff}<3.6701$ for HDE cosmology, under the constraints of the combination of these data. Thus, without the addition of measurements of growth of structure, only upper limits on both $m_{\nu,{\rm{sterile}}}^{\rm{eff}}$ and $N_{\rm eff}$ can be derived, indicating that no evidence of the existence of a sterile neutrino with eV-scale mass is found in this analysis. Moreover, compared to the $\Lambda$CDM model, in the $w$CDM model the limit on $m_{\nu,{\rm{sterile}}}^{\rm{eff}}$ becomes much looser, but in HDE model the limit becomes much tighter. Therefore, the dark energy properties could significantly impact the constraint limits on sterile neutrino parameters. Furthermore, we also show that, compared to the $\Lambda$CDM cosmology, the dynamical dark energy cosmology with sterile neutrinos can relieve the tension between the Planck observation and the direct measurement of $H_0$ much better.

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L. Feng, J. Zhang and X. Zhang
Thu, 22 Jun 17

Comments: 17 pages, 5 figures. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1703.04884

Strong-field gravitational-wave emission in Schwarzschild and Kerr geometries: some general considerations [CL]

We show how the concurrent implementation of the exact solutions of the Einstein equations, of the equations of motion of the test particles, and of the relativistic estimate of the emission of gravitational waves from test particles, can establish a priori constraints on the possible phenomena occurring in Nature. Two examples of test particles starting at infinite distance or from finite distance in a circular orbit around a Kerr black hole are considered: the first leads to a well defined gravitational wave burst the second to a smooth merging into the black hole. We notice a difference between our treatment and the one by Ori and Thorne (2000) which will affect the gravitational wave signal. This analysis is necessary for the study of the waveforms in merging binary systems.

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J. Rodriguez, J. Rueda and R. Ruffini
Wed, 21 Jun 17

Comments: Submitted on 20/06/2017