What can we learn from the stochastic gravitational wave background produced by oscillons? [CEA]


The stochastic gravitational wave (GW) background provides a fascinating window to the physics of the very early universe. Beyond the nearly scale-invariant primordial GW spectrum produced during inflation, a spectrum with a much richer structure is typically generated during the preheating phase after inflation (or after some other phase transition at lower energies). This raises the question of what one can learn from a future observation of the stochastic gravitational wave background spectrum about the underlying physics during preheating. Recently, it has been shown that during preheating non-perturbative quasi-stable objects like oscillons can act as strong sources for GW, leading to characteristic features such as distinct peaks in the spectrum. In this paper, we study the GW production from oscillons using semi-analytical techniques. In particular, we discuss how the GW spectrum is affected by the parameters that characterise a given oscillon system, e.g. by the background cosmology, the asymmetry of the oscillons and the evolution of the number density of the oscillons. We compare our semi-analytic results with numerical lattice simulations for a hilltop inflation model and a KKLT scenario, which differ strongly in some of these characteristics, and find very good agreement.

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S. Antusch, F. Cefala and S. Orani
Tue, 12 Dec 17

Comments: 25 pages + Appendix, 16 figures

The Higgs Boson can delay Reheating after Inflation [CL]


The Standard Model Higgs boson, which has previously been shown to develop an effective vacuum expectation value during inflation, can give rise to large particle masses during inflation and reheating, leading to temporary blocking of the reheating process and a lower reheat temperature after inflation. We study the effects on the multiple stages of reheating: resonant particle production (preheating) as well as perturbative decays from coherent oscillations of the inflaton field. Specifically, we study both the cases of the inflaton coupling to Standard Model fermions through Yukawa interactions as well as to Abelian gauge fields through a Chern-Simons term. We find that, in the case of perturbative inflaton decay to SM fermions, reheating can be delayed due to Higgs blocking and the reheat temperature can decrease by up to an order of magnitude. In the case of gauge-reheating, Higgs-generated masses of the gauge fields can suppress preheating even for large inflaton-gauge couplings. In extreme cases, preheating can be shut down completely and must be substituted by perturbative decay as the dominant reheating channel. Finally, we discuss the distribution of reheat temperatures in different Hubble patches, arising from the stochastic nature of the Higgs VEV during inflation and its implications for the generation of both adiabatic and isocurvature fluctuations.

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K. Freese, E. Sfakianakis, P. Stengel, et. al.
Tue, 12 Dec 17

Comments: 21 pages, 9 figures

The MSSM inflation and cosmological attractors [CL]


Inflationary scenarios motivated by the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) where five scalar fields are non-minimally coupled to gravity are considered. The potential of the model and the function of non-minimal coupling are polynomials of two Higgs doublet convolutions. We show that the use of the strong coupling approximation allows to obtain inflationary parameters in the case when a combination of the four scalar fields plays a role of inflaton. Numerical calculations show that the cosmological evolution leads to inflationary scenarios fully compatible with observational data for different values of the MSSM mixing angle $\beta$.

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M. Dubinin, E. Petrova, E. Pozdeeva, et. al.
Tue, 12 Dec 17

Comments: 13 pages, 1 figure. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1705.09624

The EDGE-CALIFA survey: the influence of galactic rotation on the molecular depletion time across the Hubble sequence [GA]


We present a kpc-scale analysis of the relationship between the molecular depletion time ($\tau_\mathrm{dep}^\mathrm{mol}$) and the orbital time ($\tau_\mathrm{orb}$) across the field of 39 face-on local galaxies, selected from the EDGE-CALIFA sample. We find that, on average, 5% of the available molecular gas is converted into stars per orbital time, or $\tau_\mathrm{dep}^\mathrm{mol}\sim20\tau_\mathrm{orb}$. The resolved relation shows a scatter of $\sim0.5$ dex. The scatter is ascribable to galaxies of different morphologies that follow different $\tau_\mathrm{dep}^\mathrm{mol}-\tau_\mathrm{orb}$ relations which decrease in steepness from early- to late-types. The morphologies appear to be linked with the star formation rate surface density, the molecular depletion time, and the orbital time, but they do not correlate with the molecular gas content of the galaxies in our sample. We speculate that in our molecular gas rich, early-type galaxies, the morphological quenching (in particular the disc stabilization via shear), rather than the absence of molecular gas, is the main factor responsible for their current inefficient star formation.

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D. Colombo, V. Kalinova, D. Utomo, et. al.
Tue, 12 Dec 17

Comments: 18 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS

The dipole anisotropy of AllWISE galaxies [CEA]


Previous studies have shown that our velocity in the rest frame of galaxies at high redshift does not converge to that deduced from the CMB temperature-dipole anisotropy. In this work we determine the dipole in the galaxy catalogue derived from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) survey. After reducing star contamination to ~0.1% by rejecting sources with high apparent motion as well as those close to the Galactic plane, we eliminate low redshift sources in order to suppress the non-kinematic, clustering dipole. We remove sources near the super-galactic plane, and those which are within 1” of 2Mass Redshift Survey (2MRS) sources at z<0.03. We enforce cuts on the angular extent of the sources to preferentially select distant ones. As we progress along these steps, the dipole converges in direction towards that of the CMB, ending up within 5{\deg} of it. Its magnitude also progressively reduces as nearby structures are removed but stabilises at ~0.012, corresponding to a velocity >1000 km/s, if it is solely of kinematic origin. However, previous studies have shown that only ~70% of the velocity of the Local Group as inferred from the CMB dipole is due to sources at z<0.03. We examine the Dark Sky simulations to quantify the prevalence of such environments and find that <3.1% of Milky Way-like observers in a {\Lambda}CDM universe should observe the bulk flow (>240 km/s extending beyond z=0.03) that we do. We construct mock catalogues from the Dark Sky simulations in the neighbourhood of such peculiar observers in order to mimic our final galaxy selection, and quantify the residual clustering dipole. After subtracting this the remaining dipole is 0.0048+/-0.0022, corresponding to a velocity of 430+/-197 km/s which is consistent with the CMB. However the cause of such a large clustering dipole, the sources of which are at z>0.03, remains to be established.

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M. Rameez, R. Mohayaee, S. Sarkar, et. al.
Tue, 12 Dec 17

Comments: Prepared for submission to MNRAS

Search for unusual objects in the WISE Survey [GA]


Automatic source detection and classification tools based on machine learning (ML) algorithms are growing in popularity due to their efficiency when dealing with large amounts of data simultaneously and their ability to work in multidimensional parameter spaces. In this work, we present a new, automated method of outlier selection based on support vector machine (SVM) algorithm called one-class SVM (OCSVM), which uses the training data as one class to construct a model of ‘normality’ in order to recognize novel points. We test the performance of OCSVM algorithm on \textit{Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)} data trained on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) sources. Among others, we find $\sim 40,000$ sources with abnormal patterns which can be associated with obscured and unobscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) source candidates. We present the preliminary estimation of the clustering properties of these objects and find that the unobscured AGN candidates are preferentially found in less massive dark matter haloes ($M_{DMH}\sim10^{12.4}$) than the obscured candidates ($M_{DMH}\sim 10^{13.2}$). This result contradicts the unification theory of AGN sources and indicates that the obscured and unobscured phases of AGN activity take place in different evolutionary paths defined by different environments.

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A. Solarz, M. Bilicki and A. Pollo
Tue, 12 Dec 17

Comments: 4 figures, 6 pages

Quartet-metric gravity and dark components of the Universe [CL]


In the report there are presented the general frameworks for the quartet-metric gravity based upon the two physical concepts. First, there exist in space-time the distinct dynamical coordinates, given by a scalar quartet, playing the role of the Higgs fields for gravity. Second, the physical gravity fields arising due to the spontaneous symmetry breaking serve as the dark components of the Universe. It is argued that the mere admixture to metric of the scalar quartet may give rise to an extremely wide spectrum of the emergent gravity phenomena beyond General Relativity (GR). Developing the proposed frameworks further to find out the next-to-GR theory of gravity is a challenge.

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Y. Pirogov
Tue, 12 Dec 17

Comments: Minor corrections. 7 pages. Report presented at the XXXI Intern. Workshop on HEP, Protvino, 5-7 July 2017