Astrophysical signatures of leptonium [HEAP]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1712.02022


More than 10^43 positrons annihilate every second in the centre of our Galaxy yet, despite four decades of observations, their origin is still unknown. Many candidates have been proposed, such as supernovae and low mass X-ray binaries. However, these models are difficult to reconcile with the distribution of positrons, which are highly concentrated in the Galactic bulge, and therefore require specific propagation of the positrons through the interstellar medium. Alternative sources include dark matter decay, or the supermassive black hole, both of which would have a naturally high bulge-to-disc ratio.
The chief difficulty in reconciling models with the observations is the intrinsically poor angular resolution of gamma-ray observations, which cannot resolve point sources. Essentially all of the positrons annihilate via the formation of positronium. This gives rise to the possibility of observing recombination lines of positronium emitted before the atom annihilates. These emission lines would be in the UV and the NIR, giving an increase in angular resolution of a factor of 10^4 compared to gamma ray observations, and allowing the discrimination between point sources and truly diffuse emission.
Analogously to the formation of positronium, it is possible to form atoms of true muonium and true tauonium. Since muons and tauons are intrinsically unstable, the formation of such leptonium atoms will be localised to their places of origin. Thus observations of true muonium or true tauonium can provide another way to distinguish between truly diffuse sources such as dark matter decay, and an unresolved distribution of point sources.

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S. Ellis and J. Bland-Hawthorn
Thu, 7 Dec 17
1/72

Comments: Accepted for publication in EPJ-D, 9 pages, 4 figures

Excitation and charge transfer in low-energy hydrogen atom collisions with neutral oxygen [SSA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1712.01166


Excitation and charge transfer in low-energy O+H collisions is studied; it is a problem of importance for modelling stellar spectra and obtaining accurate oxygen abundances in late-type stars including the Sun. The collisions have been studied theoretically using a previously presented method based on an asymptotic two-electron linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) model of ionic-covalent interactions in the neutral atom-hydrogen-atom system, together with the multichannel Landau-Zener model. The method has been extended to include configurations involving excited states of hydrogen using an estimate for the two-electron transition coupling, but this extension was found to not lead to any remarkably high rates. Rate coefficients are calculated for temperatures in the range 1000 – 20000 K, and charge transfer and (de)excitation processes involving the first excited S-states, 4s.5So and 4s.3So, are found to have the highest rates.

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P. Barklem
Tue, 5 Dec 17
7/96

Comments: Accepted for A&A. Data will be made available at CDS. Is available here: this https URL

Atomic Interferometric Gravitational-wave Space Observatory (AIGSO) [CL]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1711.03690


We propose a space-borne gravitational-wave detection scheme, called atom interferometric gravitational-wave space observatory (AIGSO). It is motivated by the progress in the atomic matter-wave interferometry, which solely utilizes the standing light waves to split, deflect and recombine the atomic beam. Our scheme consists of three drag-free satellites orbiting the Earth. The phase shift of AIGSO is dominated by the Sagnac effect of gravitational-waves, which is proportional to the area enclosed by the atom interferometer, the frequency and amplitude of gravitational-waves. The scheme has a strain sensitivity $< 10^{-20}/\sqrt{{\rm Hz}}$ in the 100 mHz-10 Hz frequency range, which fills in the detection gap between space-based and ground-based laser interferometric detectors. Thus, our proposed AIGSO can be a good complementary detection scheme to the space-borne laser interferometric schemes, such as LISA. Considering the current status of relevant technology readiness, we expect our AIGSO to be a promising candidate for the future space-based gravitational-wave detection plan.

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D. Gao, J. Wang and M. Zhan
Mon, 13 Nov 17
20/46

Comments: 9 pages, 3 figures

Atomic Interferometric Gravitational-wave Space Observatory (AIGSO) [CL]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1711.03690


We propose a space-borne gravitational-wave detection scheme, called atom interferometric gravitational-wave space observatory (AIGSO). It is motivated by the progress in the atomic matter-wave interferometry, which solely utilizes the standing light waves to split, deflect and recombine the atomic beam. Our scheme consists of three drag-free satellites orbiting the Earth. The phase shift of AIGSO is dominated by the Sagnac effect of gravitational-waves, which is proportional to the area enclosed by the atom interferometer, the frequency and amplitude of gravitational-waves. The scheme has a strain sensitivity $< 10^{-20}/\sqrt{{\rm Hz}}$ in the 100 mHz-10 Hz frequency range, which fills in the detection gap between space-based and ground-based laser interferometric detectors. Thus, our proposed AIGSO can be a good complementary detection scheme to the space-borne laser interferometric schemes, such as LISA. Considering the current status of relevant technology readiness, we expect our AIGSO to be a promising candidate for the future space-based gravitational-wave detection plan.

Read this paper on arXiv…

D. Gao, J. Wang and M. Zhan
Mon, 13 Nov 17
20/46

Comments: 9 pages, 3 figures

Mid-band gravitational wave detection with precision atomic sensors [IMA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1711.02225


We assess the science reach and technical feasibility of a satellite mission based on precision atomic sensors configured to detect gravitational radiation. Conceptual advances in the past three years indicate that a two-satellite constellation with science payloads consisting of atomic sensors based on laser cooled atomic Sr can achieve scientifically interesting gravitational wave strain sensitivities in a frequency band between the LISA and LIGO detectors, roughly 30 mHz to 10 Hz. The discovery potential of the proposed instrument ranges from from observation of new astrophysical sources (e.g. black hole and neutron star binaries) to searches for cosmological sources of stochastic gravitational radiation and searches for dark matter.

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P. Graham, J. Hogan, M. Kasevich, et. al.
Wed, 8 Nov 17
12/84

Comments: 18 pages, 4 figures

New method of galactic axion search [CL]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1710.11262


An important and appealing candidate of the galactic dark matter is the axion, which was postulated to solve the CP (Charge-conjugation Parity) violation problem in strong interaction of the standard particle theory. A new experimental method is proposed to determine both the axion mass and its velocity distribution on Earth. The method uses collectively and coherently excited atoms or molecules triggered by strong laser field, resulting in galactic axion absorption along with signal photon emission to be detected.

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M. Yoshimura and N. Sasao
Wed, 1 Nov 17
48/63

Comments: 8 pages, 3 figures

A method for controlling the magnetic field near a superconducting boundary in the ARIADNE axion experiment [CL]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1710.08102


The QCD Axion is a particle postulated to exist since the 1970s to explain the Strong-CP problem in particle physics. It could also account for all of the observed Dark Matter in the universe. The Axion Resonant InterAction DetectioN Experiment (ARIADNE) experiment intends to detect the QCD axion by sensing the fictitious “magnetic field” created by its coupling to spin. The experiment must be sensitive to magnetic fields below the $10^{-19}$ T level to achieve its design sensitivity, necessitating tight control of the experiment’s magnetic environment. We describe a method for controlling three aspects of that environment which would otherwise limit the experimental sensitivity. Firstly, a system of superconducting magnetic shielding is described to screen ordinary magnetic noise from the sample volume at the $10^8$ level. Secondly, a method for reducing magnetic field gradients within the sample up to $10^2$ times is described, using a simple and cost-effective design geometry. Thirdly, a novel coil design is introduced which allows the generation of fields similar to those produced by Helmholtz coils in regions directly abutting superconducting boundaries. The methods may be generally useful for magnetic field control near superconducting boundaries in other experiments where similar considerations apply.

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H. Fosbinder-Elkins, J. Dargert, M. Harkness, et. al.
Tue, 24 Oct 17
48/68

Comments: 8 pages, 11 figures