TeV Gamma Rays From Galactic Center Pulsars [HEAP]


Measurements of the nearby pulsars Geminga and B0656+14 by the HAWC and Milagro telescopes have revealed the presence of bright TeV-emitting halos surrounding these objects. If young and middle-aged pulsars near the Galactic Center transfer a similar fraction of their energy into TeV photons, then these sources could dominate the emission that is observed by HESS and other ground-based telescopes from the innermost ~10^2 parsecs of the Milky Way. In particular, both the spectral shape and the angular extent of this emission is consistent with TeV halos produced by a population of pulsars. The overall flux of this emission requires a birth rate of ~100-1000 neutron stars per Myr near the Galactic Center, in good agreement with recent estimates.

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D. Hooper, I. Cholis and T. Linden
Mon, 29 May 17

Comments: 13 pages, 2 figure

The chemical evolution of the Milky Way [GA]


We will discuss some highlights concerning the chemical evolution of our Galaxy, the Milky Way. First we will describe the main ingredients necessary to build a model for the chemical evolution of the Milky Way. Then we will illustrate some Milky Way models which includes detailed stellar nucleosynthesis and compute the evolution of a large number of chemical elements, including C, N, O, $\alpha$-elements, Fe and heavier. The main observables and in particular the chemical abundances in stars and gas will be considered. A comparison theory-observations will follow and finally some conclusions from this astroarchaeological approach will be derived.

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F. Matteucci, E. Spitoni, D. Romano, et. al.
Mon, 29 May 17

Comments: 10 pages, 6 figures, in Frontier Research in Astrophysics – II 23-28 May 2016 Mondello (Palermo), Italy

The HDUV Survey: A Revised Assessment of the Relationship between UV Slope and Dust Attenuation for High-Redshift Galaxies [GA]


We use a newly assembled large sample of 3,545 star-forming galaxies with secure spectroscopic, grism, and photometric redshifts at z=1.5-2.5 to constrain the relationship between UV slope (beta) and dust attenuation (L(IR)/L(UV)=IRX). Our sample benefits from the combination of deep Hubble WFC3/UVIS photometry from the Hubble Deep UV (HDUV) Legacy survey and existing photometric data compiled in the 3D-HST survey, and extends the range of UV luminosity and beta probed in previous UV-selected samples. IRX is measured using stacks of deep Herschel/PACS 100 and 160 micron data, and the results are compared with predictions of the IRX-beta relation for different assumptions of the stellar population model and obscuration curve. We find that z=1.5-2.5 galaxies have an IRX-beta relation that is consistent with the predictions for an SMC extinction curve if we invoke sub-solar metallicity models that are currently favored for high-redshift galaxies, while the commonly assumed starburst attenuation curve over-predicts the IRX at a given beta by a factor of ~3. The IRX of high-mass (M>10^9.75 Msun) galaxies is a factor of >4 larger than that of low-mass galaxies, lending support for the use of stellar mass as a proxy for attenuation. The commonly observed trend of fainter galaxies having bluer beta may simply reflect bluer intrinsic UV slopes for such galaxies, rather than lower obscurations. The IRX-beta for young/low-mass galaxies implies a dust curve that is steeper than the SMC, suggesting a lower attenuation at a given beta relative to older/more massive galaxies. The lower attenuations and higher ionizing photon output implied by low metallicity stellar population models point to Lyman continuum production efficiencies, xi_ion, that may be elevated by a factor of ~2 relative to the canonical value for L galaxies, aiding in their ability to keep the universe ionized at z~2. [Abridged]

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N. Reddy, P. Oesch, R. Bouwens, et. al.
Mon, 29 May 17

Comments: 22 pages, 3 tables, 11 figures, submitted to the Astrophysical Journal

A Tale of Three Cities: OmegaCAM discovers multiple sequences in the color-magnitude diagram of the Orion Nebula Cluster [SSA]


As part of the Accretion Discs in H$\alpha$ with OmegaCAM (ADHOC) survey, we imaged in r, i and H-alpha a region of 12×8 square degrees around the Orion Nebula Cluster. Thanks to the high-quality photometry obtained, we discovered three well-separated pre-main sequences in the color-magnitude diagram. The populations are all concentrated towards the cluster’s center. Although several explanations can be invoked to explain these sequences we are left with two competitive, but intriguing, scenarios: a population of unresolved binaries with an exotic mass ratio distribution or three populations with different ages. Independent high-resolution spectroscopy supports the presence of discrete episodes of star formation, each separated by about a million years. The stars from the two putative youngest populations rotate faster than the older ones, in agreement with the evolution of stellar rotation observed in pre-main sequence stars younger than 4 Myr in several star forming regions. Whatever the final explanation, our results prompt for a revised look at the formation mode and early evolution of stars in clusters.

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G. Beccari, M. Petr-Gotzens, H. Boffin, et. al.
Mon, 29 May 17

Comments: A&A in print

An X-ray survey of the 2Jy sample. II: X-ray emission from extended structures [GA]


The 2Jy sample is a survey of radio galaxies with flux densities above 2 Jy at 2.7 GHz. As part of our ongoing work on the southern subset of 2Jy sources, in paper I of this series we analysed the X-ray cores of the complete 2Jy sample with redshifts 0.05<z<0.7. For this work we focus on the X-ray emission associated with the extended structures (jets, lobes, and environments) of the complete subset of 2Jy sources with 0.05<z<0.2, that we have observed with Chandra. We find that hotspots and jet knots are ubiquitous in FRII sources, which also inhabit systematically poorer environments than the FRI sources in our sample. Spectral fits of the hotspots with good X-ray statistics invariably show properties consistent with synchrotron emission, and we show that inverse-Compton mechanisms under-predict the X-ray emission we observe by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Inverse-Compton emission is detected from many of the lobes in our sample, and we find that the lobes of the FRII sources show magnetic fields lower by up to an order of magnitude than expected from equipartition extrapolations. This is consistent with previous results, which show that most FRII sources have electron energy densities higher than minimum energy requirements.

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B. Mingo, M. Hardcastle, J. Ineson, et. al.
Mon, 29 May 17

Comments: 18 pages, 3 tables, 29 figures, accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS)

The structural evolution of galaxies with both thin and thick discs [GA]


We perform controlled N-body simulations of disc galaxies growing within live dark matter (DM) haloes to present-day galaxies that contain both thin and thick discs. We consider two types of models: a) thick disc initial conditions to which stars on near-circular orbits are continuously added over ~10 Gyr and b) models in which the birth velocity dispersion of stars decreases continuously over the same timescale. We show that both schemes produce double-exponential vertical profiles similar to that of the Milky Way (MW). We indicate how the spatial age structure of galaxies can be used to discriminate between scenarios. We show that the presence of a thick disc significantly alters and delays bar formation and thus makes possible models with a realistic bar and a high baryon-to-DM mass ratio in the central regions, as required by microlensing constraints. We examine how the radial mass distribution in stars and DM is affected by disc growth and non-axisymmetries. We discuss how bar buckling shapes the vertical age distribution of thin and thick disc stars in the bar region. The extent to which the combination of observationally motivated inside-out growth histories and cosmologically motivated dark halo properties leads to the spontaneous formation of non-axisymmetries which steer the models towards present-day MW-like galaxies is noteworthy.

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M. Aumer and J. Binney
Fri, 26 May 17

Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS, 22 pages, 13 figures, 2 tables

Quasar Lenses and Galactic Streams: Outlier Selection and GAIA Multiplet Detection [GA]


I describe two novel techniques originally devised to select strongly lensed quasar candidates in wide-field surveys. The first relies on outlier selection in optical and mid-infrared magnitude space; the second combines mid-infrared colour selection with GAIA spatial resolution, to identify multiplets of objects with quasar-like colours. Both methods have already been applied successfully to the SDSS, ATLAS and DES footprints: besides recovering known lenses from previous searches, they have led to new discoveries, including quadruply lensed quasars, which are rare within the rare-object class of quasar lenses. As a serendipitous by-product, at least four candidate Galactic streams in the South have been identified among foreground contaminants. There is considerable scope for tailoring the WISE-GAIA multiplet search to stellar-like objects, instead of quasar-like, and to automatically detect Galactic streams.

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A. Agnello
Fri, 26 May 17

Comments: MNRAS subm. 21/04, revised version after referee report. 10 pages, 5 figures