Observational consequences of optical band milliarcsecond-scale structure in active galactic nuclei discovered by Gaia [HEAP]


We interpret the recent discovery of a preferable VLBI/Gaia offset direction for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) along the parsec-scale radio jet as a manifestation of their optical structure on scales of 1 to 100 milliarcseconds. The extended jet structure affects the Gaia position stronger than the VLBI position due to the difference in observing techniques. Gaia detects total power while VLBI measures the correlated quantity, visibility. The synergy of VLBI that is sensitive to the position of the most compact source component, usually associated with the opaque radio core, and Gaia that is sensitive to the centroid of optical emission, opens a window of opportunity to study optical jets at milliarcsecond resolution, two orders of magnitude finer than the resolution of most existing optical instruments. We have demonstrated that strong variability of optical jets is able to cause a jitter comparable to the VLBI/Gaia offsets at a quiet state, i.e. several milliarcseconds. We have shown that VLBI/Gaia position jitter correlation against the AGN optical light curve may help to locate the region where the flare occurred, estimate its distance from the super-massive black hole and the ratio of the flux density in the flaring region to the total flux density.

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L. Petrov and Y. Kovalev
Wed, 26 Apr 17

Comments: Submitted to Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society; 12 pages, 8 figures

DDO 161 and UGCA 319: an isolated pair of nearby dwarf galaxies [GA]


We report HST/ACS observations of two nearby gas-rich dwarf galaxies: DDO 161 and UGCA 319. Their distances determined via the Tip of the Red Giant Branch are 6.03 (-0.21/+0.29) Mpc and 5.75+-0.18 Mpc, respectively. The galaxies form an isolated pair dynamically well separated from the nearest neighbors: KK 176 (7.28+-0.29 Mpc) and NGC 5068 (5.16+-0.21 Mpc). All four galaxies have a bulk spatial peculiar velocity towards the Virgo cluster of ~158+-17 km/s in the Local Group rest frame and ~330 km/s with respect to the cluster center.

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I. Karachentsev, L. Makarova, R. Tully, et. al.
Wed, 26 Apr 17

Comments: 5 pages, 3 figures, 3 tables, accepted in MNRAS

Tidal tails around the outer halo globular clusters Eridanus and Palomar 15 [GA]


We report the discovery of tidal tails around the two outer halo globular clusters, Eridanus and Palomar 15, based on $gi$-band images obtained with DECam at the CTIO 4-m Blanco Telescope. The tidal tails are among the most remote stellar streams presently known in the Milky Way halo. Cluster members have been determined from the color-magnitude diagrams and used to establish the radial density profiles, which show, in both cases, a strong departure in the outer regions from the best-fit King profile. Spatial density maps reveal tidal tails stretching out on opposite sides of both clusters, extending over a length of $\sim$760 pc for Eridanus and $\sim$1160 pc for Palomar 15. The great circle projected from the Palomar 15 tidal tails encompasses the Galactic Center, while that for Eridanus passes close to four dwarf satellite galaxies, one of which (Sculptor) is at a comparable distance to that of Eridanus.

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G. Myeong, H. Jerjen, D. Mackey, et. al.
Wed, 26 Apr 17

Comments: 6 pages, 3 figures, 1 table, ApJ Letters, accepted

Quasars with PV broad absorption in BOSS data release 9 [GA]


Broad absorption lines (BALs) found in a significant fraction of quasar spectra identify high-velocity outflows that might be present in all quasars and could be a major factor in feedback to galaxy evolution. Understanding the nature of these flows requires further constraints on their physical properties, including their column densities, for which well-studied BALs, such as CIV 1548,1551, typically provide only a lower limit because of saturation effects. Low-abundance lines, such as PV 1118,1128, indicate large column densities, implying outflows more powerful than measurements of CIV alone would indicate. We search through a sample of 2694 BAL quasars from the SDSS-III/BOSS DR9 quasar catalog for such absorption, and we identify 81 definite' and 86probable’ detections of PV broad absorption, yielding a firm lower limit of 3.0-6.2% for the incidence of such absorption among BAL quasars. The PV-detected quasars tend to have stronger CIV and SiIV absorption, as well as a higher incidence of LoBAL absorption, than the overall BAL quasar population. Many of the PV-detected quasars have CIV troughs that do not reach zero intensity (at velocities where PV is detected), confirming that the outflow gas only partially covers the UV continuum source. PV appears significantly in a composite spectrum of non-PV-detected BAL quasars, indicating that PV absorption (and large column densities) are much more common than indicated by our search results. Our sample of PV detections significantly increases the number of known PV detections, providing opportunities for follow-up studies to better understand BAL outflow energetics.

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D. Capellupo, F. Hamann, H. Herbst, et. al.
Wed, 26 Apr 17

Comments: 18 pages, 12 figures. All spectral plots available at this http URL

Chemodynamical Modelling of the Galactic Bulge and Bar [GA]


We present the first self-consistent chemodynamical model fitted to reproduce data for the galactic bulge, bar and inner disk. We extend the Made-to-Measure method to an augmented phase-space including the metallicity of stars, and show its first application to the bar region of the Milky Way. Using data from the ARGOS and APOGEE (DR12) surveys, we adapt the recent dynamical model from Portail et al. to reproduce the observed spatial and kinematic variations as a function of metallicity, thus allowing the detailed study of the 3D density distributions, kinematics and orbital structure of stars in different metallicity bins. We find that metal-rich stars with [Fe/H] > -0.5 are strongly barred and have dynamical properties that are consistent with a common disk origin. Metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < -0.5 show strong kinematic variations with metallicity, indicating varying contributions from the underlying stellar populations. Outside the central kpc, metal-poor stars are found to have the density and kinematics of a thick disk while in the inner kpc, evidence for an extra concentration of metal-poor stars is found. Finally, the combined orbit distributions of all metallicities in the model naturally reproduce the observed vertex deviations in the bulge. This paper demonstrates the power of Made-to-Measure chemodynamical models, that when extended to other chemical dimensions will be very powerful tools to maximize the information obtained from large spectroscopic surveys such as APOGEE, GALAH and MOONS.

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M. Portail, C. Wegg, O. Gerhard, et. al.
Wed, 26 Apr 17

Comments: Paper submitted to MNRAS, this version after response to referee report. 20 pages, 17 figures

Evolution of long-lived globular cluster stars IV. Initial helium content and white-dwarf properties [SSA]


Context. Globular clusters host stars with chemical peculiarities. The associated helium enrichment is expected to affect the evolution of stars, in general, and of low-mass stars, and in particular the progenitors of white dwarfs (WDs). Aims. We investigate the effects of different initial helium contents on the properties of white dwarfs such as their masses, compositions, and the time since their formation. Results. In a globular cluster at a given age, the He enrichment implies lower initial masses for stars at a given phase. Thus it leads to a decrease of the masses of white dwarfs reaching the cooling sequence. In addition the He enrichment increases the total mass and number of white dwarfs and eventually allows the presence of He white dwarf from single progenitors. Conclusions. The low He enrichment determined in most globular clusters with different methods results in negligible effects on the white dwarf properties. However, in the few globular clusters that display a high He enrichment, this may significantly affect the characteristics of the white dwarfs. In NGC 2808 and {\omega} Centauri the high He enrichment even leads to the formation of He white dwarfs from single He-rich progenitors. Therefore investigating the white dwarf mass domain in globular clusters with a high He enrichment would provide an additional indirect way to measure and constrain the He enrichment degree.

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W. Chantereau, C. Charbonnel and G. Meynet
Wed, 26 Apr 17

Comments: 8 pages, 3 figures. A&A, Forthcoming article

An Estimation of the Star Formation Rate in the Perseus Complex [GA]


We present the results of our investigation of the star-forming potential in the Perseus star-forming complex. We build on previous starless core, protostellar core, and young stellar object (YSO) catalogs from Spitzer, Herschel, and SCUBA observations in the literature. We place the cores and YSOs within seven star-forming clumps based on column densities greater than 5×10^21 cm^-2. We calculate the mean density and free-fall time for 69 starless cores as 5.55×10^-19 gcm^-3 and 0.1 Myr,respectively, and we estimate the star formation rate for the near future as 150 Msun Myr^-1. According to Bonnor Ebert stability analysis, we find that majority of starless cores in Perseus are unstable. Broadly, these cores can collapse to form the next generation of stars. We found a relation between starless cores and YSOs, where the numbers of young protostars (Class 0 + Class I) are similar to the numbers of starless cores. This similarity, which shows a one-to-one relation, suggests that these starless cores may form the next generation of stars with approximately the same formation rate as the current generation, as identified by the Class 0 and Class I protostars. It follows that if such a relation between starless cores and any YSO stage exists, the SFR values of these two populations must be nearly constant. In brief, we propose that this one-to-one relation is an important factor in better understanding the star formation process within a cloud.

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S. Mercimek, P. Myers, K. Lee, et. al.
Wed, 26 Apr 17

Comments: Published in AJ, 2017, 153, 214; 14 pages, 7 figures