The close circumstellar environment of Betelgeuse – V. Rotation velocity and molecular envelope properties from ALMA [SSA]

We observed Betelgeuse using ALMA’s extended configuration in band 7 (f~340 GHz, {\lambda}~0.88 mm), resulting in a very high angular resolution of 18 mas. Using a solid body rotation model of the 28SiO(v=2,J=8-7) line emission, we show that the supergiant is rotating with a projected equatorial velocity of v_eq sin i = 5.47 +/- 0.25 km/s at the equivalent continuum angular radius R_star = 29.50 +/- 0.14 mas. This corresponds to an angular rotation velocity of {\omega} sin i = (5.6 +/- 1.3) x 10^(-9) rad/s. The position angle of its north pole is PA = 48.0 +/- 3.5{\deg}. The rotation period of Betelgeuse is estimated to P/sin i = 36 +/- 8 years. The combination of our velocity measurement with previous observations in the ultraviolet shows that the chromosphere is co-rotating with the star up to a radius of ~10 au (45 mas or 1.5x the ALMA continuum radius). The coincidence of the position angle of the polar axis of Betelgeuse with that of the major ALMA continuum hot spot, a molecular plume, and a partial dust shell (from previous observations) suggests that focused mass loss is currently taking place in the polar region of the star. We propose that this hot spot corresponds to the location of a particularly strong “rogue” convection cell, which emits a focused molecular plume that subsequently condenses into dust at a few stellar radii. Rogue convection cells therefore appear to be an important factor shaping the anisotropic mass loss of red supergiants.

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P. Kervella, L. Decin, A. Richards, et. al.
Thu, 23 Nov 17

Comments: 18 pages, 19 figures, accepted for publication in A&A

Examination of artifact in vector magnetic field SDO/HMI measurements [SSA]

In this paper, we came to conclusion that there is a significant systematic error in the SDO/HMI vector magnetic data, which reveals itself in a significant deviation of the lines of the knot magnetic fields from the radial direction. The value of this deviation demonstrates a clear dependence on the distance to the disk center. This paper suggests a method for correction of the vector magnetograms that eliminates the detected systematic error.

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G. Rudenko and I. Dmitrienko
Thu, 23 Nov 17

Comments: 12 pages, 8 figures

12C/13C isotopic ratios in red-giant stars of the open cluster NGC 6791 [SSA]

Carbon isotope ratios, along with carbon and nitrogen abundances, are derived in a sample of 11 red-giant members of one of the most metal-rich clusters in the Milky Way, NGC 6791. The selected red-giants have a mean metallicity and standard deviation of [Fe/H]=+0.39+-0.06 (Cunha et al. 2015). We used high resolution H-band spectra obtained by the SDSS-IV Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). The advantage of using high-resolution spectra in the H-band is that lines of CO are well represented and their line profiles are sensitive to the variation of 12C/13C. Values of the 12C/13C ratio were obtained from a spectrum synthesis analysis. The derived 12C/13C ratios varied between 6.3 and 10.6 in NGC 6791, in agreement with the final isotopic ratios from thermohaline-induced mixing models. The ratios derived here are combined with those obtained for more metal poor red-giants from the literature to examine the correlation between 12C/13C, mass, metallicity and evolutionary status.

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L. Szigeti, S. Meszaros, V. Smith, et. al.
Thu, 23 Nov 17

Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS, 9 pages, 4 figures, 2 tables

Tomography of cool giant and supergiant star atmospheres. I. Validation of the method [SSA]

Cool giant and supergiant star atmospheres are characterized by complex velocity fields originating from convection and pulsation processes which are not fully understood yet. The velocity fields impact the formation of spectral lines, which thus contain information on the dynamics of stellar atmospheres. The tomographic method allows to recover the distribution of the component of the velocity field projected on the line of sight at different optical depths in the stellar atmosphere. The computation of the contribution function to the line depression aims at correctly identifying the depth of formation of spectral lines in order to construct numerical masks probing spectral lines forming at different optical depths. The tomographic method is applied to 1D model atmospheres and to a realistic 3D radiative hydrodynamics simulation performed with CO5BOLD in order to compare their spectral line formation depths and velocity fields. In 1D model atmospheres, each spectral line forms in a restricted range of optical depths. On the other hand, in 3D simulations, the line formation depths are spread in the atmosphere mainly because of temperature and density inhomogeneities. Comparison of CCF profiles obtained from 3D synthetic spectra with velocities from the 3D simulation shows that the tomographic method correctly recovers the distribution of the velocity component projected on the line of sight in the atmosphere.

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K. Kravchenko, S. Eck, A. Chiavassa, et. al.
Thu, 23 Nov 17

Comments: 12 pages, 17 figures

Iwahashi Zenbei's Sunspot Drawings in 1793 in Japan [SSA]

Three Japanese sunspot drawings associated with Iwahashi Zenbei (1756-1811) are shown here from contemporary manuscripts and woodprint documents with the relevant texts. We revealed the observational date of one of the drawings to be 26 August 1793, and the overall observations lasted for over a year. Moreover, we identified the observational site for the dated drawing at Fushimi in Japan. We then compared his observations with group sunspot number and raw group count from Sunspot Index and Long-term Solar Observations (SILSO) to reveal its data context, and concluded that these drawings filled the gaps in understanding due to the fragmental sunspots observations around 1793. These drawings are important as a clue to evaluate astronomical knowledge of contemporary Japan in the late 19 th century and are valuable as a non-European observation, considering that most sunspot observations up to mid-19 th century are from Europe.

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H. Hayakawa, K. Iwahashi, H. Tamazawa, et. al.
Thu, 23 Nov 17

Comments: 2017/11/16 accepted for publication in Solar Physics

Rotationally modulated photometric variations in B supergiants? [SSA]

In this contribution, we present BRITE observations of the early-B supergiants $\epsilon$ Ori and $\kappa$ Ori. We perform a preliminary analysis of the data acquired over the first two Orion observing runs. We evaluate whether they are compatible with co-rotating bright spots and discuss the challenges of such an approach.

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A. David-Uraz, G. Wade, A. Moffat, et. al.
Thu, 23 Nov 17

Comments: 6 pages, 3 figures, to be published in the proceedings of the 3rd BRITE Science Conference held in Saint-Michel-des-Saints (QC, Canada), 2017 August 7-10 — Proceedings of the Polish Astronomical Society

A Universal Transition in Atmospheric Diffusion for Hot Subdwarfs Near 18,000 K [SSA]

In the color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of globular clusters, when the locus of stars on the horizontal branch (HB) extends to hot temperatures, discontinuities are observed at colors corresponding to ~12,000 K and ~18,000 K. The former is the “Grundahl jump” that is associated with the onset of radiative levitation in the atmospheres of hot subdwarfs. The latter is the “Momany jump” that has remained unexplained. Using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, we have obtained ultraviolet and blue spectroscopy of six hot subdwarfs straddling the Momany jump in the massive globular cluster omega Cen. By comparison to model atmospheres and synthetic spectra, we find that the feature is due primarily to a decrease in atmospheric Fe for stars hotter than the feature, amplified by the temperature dependence of the Fe absorption at these effective temperatures.

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T. Brown, J. Taylor, S. Cassisi, et. al.
Thu, 23 Nov 17

Comments: Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal. 9 pages, 1 table, 10 figures. Figure 2 is shown at low resolution due to file size limits