A Tale of Three Cities: OmegaCAM discovers multiple sequences in the color-magnitude diagram of the Orion Nebula Cluster [SSA]


As part of the Accretion Discs in H$\alpha$ with OmegaCAM (ADHOC) survey, we imaged in r, i and H-alpha a region of 12×8 square degrees around the Orion Nebula Cluster. Thanks to the high-quality photometry obtained, we discovered three well-separated pre-main sequences in the color-magnitude diagram. The populations are all concentrated towards the cluster’s center. Although several explanations can be invoked to explain these sequences we are left with two competitive, but intriguing, scenarios: a population of unresolved binaries with an exotic mass ratio distribution or three populations with different ages. Independent high-resolution spectroscopy supports the presence of discrete episodes of star formation, each separated by about a million years. The stars from the two putative youngest populations rotate faster than the older ones, in agreement with the evolution of stellar rotation observed in pre-main sequence stars younger than 4 Myr in several star forming regions. Whatever the final explanation, our results prompt for a revised look at the formation mode and early evolution of stars in clusters.

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G. Beccari, M. Petr-Gotzens, H. Boffin, et. al.
Mon, 29 May 17

Comments: A&A in print

HD 46487 is Now a Classical Be Star [SSA]


We present the first observations of hydrogen line emission detected around the B-type star HD 46487, a well-studied star in the CoRoT field of view. The emission is only evident in the H$\alpha$ line, for which the observed violet-red peak separation ($\Delta v_{p}$) is typical of a B$e$ star with a circumstellar disk. The absence of dust emission from the infrared spectral energy distribution excludes the possibility of a very young star. The star’s magnitude (V=5.079) and regular use in the literature for a variety of studies suggests that the line emission had a high probability of being found previously, had it been evident; since such was not the case, we believe that the B$e$ phenomenon for HD 46487 has only very recently “turned on.” We therefore recommend that this star be spectroscopically and photometrically monitored to track continued changes to its circumstellar morphology.

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D. Whelan and R. Baker
Fri, 26 May 17

Comments: 8 pages, 3 figures; accepted for publication in JAAVSO, Vol. 45

Coronal Flux Ropes and their Interplanetary Counterparts [SSA]


We report on a study comparing coronal flux ropes inferred from eruption data with their interplanetary counterparts constructed from in situ data. The eruption data include the source-region magnetic field, post-eruption arcades, and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Flux ropes were fit to the interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) considered for the 2011 and 2012 Coordinated Data Analysis Workshops (CDAWs). We computed the total reconnected flux involved in each of the associated solar eruptions and found it to be closely related to flare properties, CME kinematics, and ICME properties. By fitting flux ropes to the white-light coronagraph data, we obtained the geometric properties of the flux ropes and added magnetic properties derived from the reonnected flux. We found that the CME magnetic field in the corona is significantly higher than the ambient magnetic field at a given heliocentric distance. The radial dependence of the flux-rope magnetic field strength is faster than that of the ambient magnetic field. The magnetic field strength of the coronal flux rope is also correlated with that in interplanetary flux ropes constructed from in situ data, and with the observed peak magnetic field strength in ICMEs. The physical reason for the observed correlation between the peak field strength in MCs is the higher magnetic field content in faster coronal flux ropes and ultimately the higher reconnected flux in the eruption region. The magnetic flux ropes constructed from the eruption data and coronagraph observations provide a realistic input that can be used by various models to predict the magnetic properties of ICMEs at Earth and other destination in the heliosphere.

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N. Gopalswamya, S. Akiyamaa, S. Yashiroa, et. al.
Fri, 26 May 17

Comments: 36 pages, 8 figures, 1 table, under review in J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. May 24, 2017

On the discrepancy between asteroseismic and Gaia DR1 TGAS parallaxes [SSA]


Recently, a deviation of the Gaia TGAS parallaxes from the asteroseismic ones for giants was found. We show that for parallaxes $\varpi<1.5$ mas it can be explained by a selection effect in favour of bright and luminous giants in the Tycho-2 and TGAS catalogues. Another explanation of this deviation seems to be valid for $\varpi>1.5$ mas based on the best extinction estimates: the deviation may be caused not by a bias of parallax, but by an underestimation of the extinction (and, consequently, an overestimation of the calculated absolute magnitude) in the asteroseismic results. We demonstrate that the reliable estimates of the reddening and extinction (about 0.22 mag of the visual extinction for the Kepler field) better fit both the giants and main sequence stars to the PARSEC, MIST and YaPSI isochrones.

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G. Gontcharov and A. Mosenkov
Fri, 26 May 17

Comments: 5 pages, 4 figures, MNRAS Letters

Increase in the amplitude of line-of-sight velocities of the small-scale motions in a solar filament before eruption [SSA]


We present a study on the evolution of the small scale velocity field in a solar filament as it approaches to the eruption. The observation was carried out by the Solar Dynamics Doppler Imager (SDDI) that was newly installed on the Solar Magnetic Activity Research Telescope (SMART) at Hida Observatory. The SDDI obtains a narrow-band full disk image of the sun at 73 channels from H$\alpha$ – 9.0 \AA\ to H$\alpha$ + 9.0 \AA, allowing us to study the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity of the filament before and during the eruption. The observed filament is a quiescent filament that erupted on 2016 November 5. We derived the LOS velocity at each pixel in the filament using the Becker’s cloud model, and made the histograms of the LOS velocity at each time. The standard deviation of the LOS velocity distribution can be regarded as a measure for the amplitude of the small scale motion in the filament. We found that the standard deviation on the previous day of the eruption was mostly constant around 2-3 km s$^{-1}$, and it slightly increased to 3-4 km s$^{-1}$ on the day of the eruption. It shows further increase with a rate of 1.1 m s$^{-2}$ about three hours before eruption and again with a rate of 2.8 m s$^{-2}$ about an hour before eruption. From this result we suggest the increase in the amplitude of the small scale motions in a filament can be regarded as a precursor of the eruption.

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D. Seki, K. Otsuji, H. Isobe, et. al.
Fri, 26 May 17

Comments: 8 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in ApJL on May 25, 2017

Low mass variable stars in the globular cluster NGC 6397 [SSA]


We have conducted a photometric survey of the globular cluster NGC 6397 in a search for variable stars. We obtained ~11h of time-resolved photometric images with one ne European Southern Observatory-Very Large Telescope using the FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph imager distributed over two consecutive nights. We analyzed 8391 light curves of stars brighter than magnitude 23 with the 465 nm-filter, and we identified 412 variable stars, reaching ~ 4.8 +- 0.2 per cent of variability with timescales between 0.004 and 2d, with amplitudes variation greater than +- 0.2 mag.

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E. Martinazzi, S. Kepler and J. Costa
Fri, 26 May 17

Comments: 9 figures, complementary data

WHT follow-up observations of extremely metal-poor stars identified from SDSS and LAMOST [SSA]


We have identified several tens of extremely metal-poor star candidates from SDSS and LAMOST, which we follow-up with the 4.2m WHT telescope to confirm their metallicity.We follow a robust two-step methodology. We first analyze the SDSS and LAMOST spectra. A first set of stellar parameters is derived from these spectra with the FERRE code, taking advantage of the continuum shape to determine the atmospheric parameters, in particular, the effective temperature. Second, we select interesting targets for follow-up observations, some of them with very low-quality SDSS or LAMOST data. We then obtain and analyze higher-quality medium-resolution spectra obtained with ISIS on the WHT telescope to arrive at a second, more reliable, set of atmospheric parameters. This allows us to derive, with accuracy, the metallicity, and confirm the extremely metal-poor nature in most cases. In this second step we also employ FERRE, but we take a running mean to normalize both the observed and the synthetic spectra, and therefore the final parameters do not rely on having an accurate flux calibration or continuum placement. In order to verify our results we have analyzed with the same tools, and following the same procedure, six well-known metal-poor stars, five of them at [Fe/H]<-4, showing that our methodology is able to get accurate metallicity determinations down to [Fe/H]<-5.0. The results for these six reference stars give us confidence on the metallicity scale for the rest of the sample. In addition, we present 12 new extremely metal-poor candidates: two stars at [Fe/H]=-4$, six more in the range -4<[Fe/H]<-3.5, and four more at -3.5<[Fe/H]<-3.0.

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D. Aguado, J. Hernandez, C. Prieto, et. al.
Fri, 26 May 17

Comments: Accepted for publication in A&A