The many-faceted light curves of young disk-bearing stars in Upper Sco and $ρ$ Oph observed by $K2$ Campaign 2 [SSA]

The $K2$ Mission has photometrically monitored thousands of stars at high precision and cadence in a series of $\sim$80-day campaigns focused on sections of the ecliptic plane. During its second campaign, $K2$ targeted over 1000 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the $\sim$1-3 Myr $\rho$ Ophiuchus and 5-10 Myr Upper Scorpius regions. From this set, we have carefully vetted photometry from {\em WISE} and {\em Spitzer} to identify those YSOs with infrared excess indicative of primordial circumstellar disks. We present here the resulting comprehensive sample of 288 young disk-bearing stars from B through M spectral types and analysis of their associated $K2$ light curves. Using statistics of periodicity and symmetry, we categorize each light curves into eight different variability classes, notably including “dippers” (fading events), “bursters” (brightening events), stochastic, and quasi-periodic types. Nearly all (96\%) of disk-bearing YSOs are identified as variable at 30-minute cadence with the sub-1\% precision of {\em K2}. Combining our variability classifications with (circum)stellar properties, we find that the bursters, stochastic sources, and the largest amplitude quasi-periodic stars have larger infrared colors, and hence stronger circumstellar disks. They also tend to have larger H$\alpha$ equivalent widths, indicative of higher accretion rates. The dippers, on the other hand, cluster toward moderate infrared colors and low H$\alpha$. Using resolved disk observations, we further find that the latter favor high inclinations, apart from a few notable exceptions with close to face-on disks. These observations support the idea that YSO time domain properties are dependent on several factors including accretion rate and view angle.

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A. Cody and L. Hillenbrand
Tue, 20 Feb 18

Comments: 54 pages (29 of which are light curves), 3 tables, 14 figures. Submitted to AAS journals

Dancing twins: stellar hierarchies that formed sequentially? [SSA]

This paper attracts attention to the class of resolved triple stars with moderate ratios of inner and outer periods (possibly in a mean motion resonance) and nearly circular, mutually aligned orbits. Moreover, stars in the inner pair are twins with almost identical masses, while the mass sum of the inner pair is comparable to the mass of the outer component. Such systems could be formed either sequentially (inside-out) by disk fragmentation with subsequent accretion and migration or by a cascade hierarchical fragmentation of a rotating cloud. Orbits of the outer and inner subsystems are computed or updated in four such hierarchies: LHS 1070 (GJ 2005, periods 77.6 and 17.25 years), HIP 9497 (80 and 14.4 years), HIP 25240 (1200 and 47.0 years), and HIP 78842 (131 and 10.5 years).

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A. Tokovinin
Tue, 20 Feb 18

Comments: 8 pages, 7 figures, 4 tables. Accepted by Astronomical Journal

The long-period massive binary HD~54662 revisited [SSA]

HD54662 is an O-type binary star belonging to the CMa OB1 association. Due to its long-period orbit, this system is an interesting target to test the adiabatic wind shock model. The goal is to improve our knowledge of the orbital and stellar parameters of HD54662 and to analyze its X-ray emission to test the theoretical scaling of the X-ray emission with orbital separation for adiabatic wind shocks. We applied a spectral disentangling code to optical spectra to determine the radial velocities and the individual spectra of each star. The individual spectra were analyzed using the CMFGEN model atmosphere code. We fitted two X-ray spectra using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm and compared them to the emission expected from adiabatic shocks. We determine an orbital period of 2103.4days, a low orbital eccentricity of 0.11, and a mass ratio m2/m1=0.84. Combined with the orbital inclination inferred in a previous astrometric study, we obtain surprisingly low masses of 9.7 and 8.2Msun. From the individual spectra, we infer O6.5 spectral types for both stars and a brightness ratio of l1/l2~2. The softness of the X-ray spectra, the very small variation of spectral parameters, and the comparison of the X-ray-to-bolometric luminosity ratio with the canonical value for O-type stars allow us to conclude that X-ray emission from the wind interaction region is quite low. We cannot confirm the runaway status previously attributed to HD54662 and we find no X-ray emission associated with the bow shock detected in the infrared. The lack of hard X-ray emission from the wind-shock region suggests that the mass-loss rates are lower than expected and/or that the pre-shock wind velocities are much lower than the terminal wind velocities. The bow shock associated with HD54662 possibly corresponds to a wind-blown arc created by the interaction of the stellar winds with the ionized gas of CMa OB1. (abridged)

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E. Mossoux, L. Mahy and G. Rauw
Tue, 20 Feb 18

Comments: Manuscript has been accepted. A&A, in press

The convective photosphere of the red supergiant CE Tau. I. VLTI/PIONIER H-band interferometric imaging [SSA]

Context. Red supergiant stars are one of the latest stages in the evolution of massive stars. Their photospheric convection may play an important role in the launching mechanism of their mass loss; however, its characteristics and dynamics are still poorly constrained. Aims. By observing red supergiant stars with near infrared interferometry at different epochs, we expect to reveal the evolution of bright convective features on their stellar surface. Methods. We observed the M2Iab-Ib red supergiant star CE Tau with the VLTI/PIONIER instrument in the H band at two different epochs separated by one month. Results. We derive the angular diameter of the star and basic stellar parameters, and reconstruct two reliable images of its H-band photosphere. The contrast of the convective pattern of the reconstructed images is $5 \pm 1 \%$ and $6 \pm 1 \%$ for our two epochs of observation. Conclusions. The stellar photosphere shows few changes between the two epochs. The contrast of the convective pattern is below the average contrast variations obtained on 30 randomly chosen snapshots of the best matching 3D radiative hydrodynamics simulation: $23 \pm 1~\%$ for the original simulation images and $16 \pm 1~\%$ for the maps degraded to the reconstruction resolution. We offer two hypotheses to explain this observation. CE Tau may be experiencing a quiet convective activity episode or it could be a consequence of its warmer effective temperature (hence its smaller radius) compared to the simulation.

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M. Montarges, R. Norris, A. Chiavassa, et. al.
Tue, 20 Feb 18

Comments: 12 pages, 8 figures. Accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysics

Solar Type IV bursts at frequencies 10-30 MHz [SSA]

The results of the first observations of Type IV bursts at frequencies 10-30 MHz are presented. These observations were carried out at radio telescopes UTR-2 (Kharkov, Ukraine) and URAN-2 (Poltava, Ukraine) during the period 2003-2006. Detection of Type IV bursts in wide band from 10 to 30MHz with high sensitivity and time resolution allowed to study their properties in details. These bursts have fluxes 10-2000s.f.u. at maximum phase. Their durations are about 1-2 hours and even more. Some of Type IV bursts drift from high to low frequencies with drift rates about 10kHz/s. All observed Type IV bursts have fine structures in the form of sub-bursts with durations from 2s to 20s and frequency drift rates in a majority of 1-2MHz/s. In most cases, sub-bursts with negative drift rates were registered. Sometimes sub-bursts in absorption with durations 10-200s against Type IV burst background have been observed. The Type IV burst observed on July 22, 2004 had zebra structure, in which single zebra stripes had positive, negative and infinite drift rates.

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V. Melnik, H. Rucker, A. Konovalenko, et. al.
Tue, 20 Feb 18

Comments: 51 pages, 72 figures

Characterization of Type Ia Supernova Light Curves Using Principal Component Analysis of Sparse Functional Data [SSA]

With growing data from ongoing and future supernova surveys it is possible to empirically quantify the shapes of SNIa light curves in more detail, and to quantitatively relate the shape parameters with the intrinsic properties of SNIa. Building such relationship is critical in controlling systematic errors associated with supernova cosmology. Based on a collection of well-observed SNIa samples accumulated in the past years, we construct an empirical SNIa light curve model using a statistical method called the functional principal component analysis (FPCA) for sparse and irregularly sampled functional data. Using this method, the entire light curve of an SNIa is represented by a linear combination of principal component functions, and the SNIa is represented by a few numbers called principal component scores. These scores are used to establish relations between light curve shapes and physical quantities such as intrinsic color, interstellar dust reddening, spectral line strength, and spectral classes. These relations allow for descriptions of some critical physical quantities based purely on light curve shape parameters. Our study shows that some important spectral feature information is being encoded in the broad band light curves, for instance, we find that the light curve shapes are correlated with the velocity and velocity gradient of the Si II $\lambda$6355 line. This is important for supernova surveys, e.g., LSST and WFIRST. Moreover, the FPCA light curve model is used to construct the entire light curve shape, which in turn is used in a functional linear form to adjust intrinsic luminosity when fitting distance models.

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S. He, L. Wang and J. Huang
Tue, 20 Feb 18

Comments: ApJ, 2018

On the evolutionary status of high-latitude variable V534 Lyr [SSA]

Based on the high resolution spectral monitoring conducted at the 6-m BTA telescope, we study the optical spectrum of the high-latitude variable V534 Lyr. Heliocentric radial velocities Vr corresponding to the positions of all metal absorption components, as well as the NaI D and H$\alpha$ lines were measured during all the observational dates. The analysis of the velocity field examining the lines of various nature revealed a low-amplitude variability of Vr based on the lines with a high excitation potential, which are formed in deep layers of the stellar atmosphere, and allowed to estimate the systemic velocity of Vsys$\approx-125$ km/s (V(lsr)$\approx-105$ km/s). The distance estimate of d$\approx$6 kpc for the star leads us to its absolute magnitude of Mv$\approx -5.3^{m}$, what corresponds to the MK spectral classification. The previously undetected for this star spectral phenomenon was revealed: at certain times a splitting of the profiles of low-excited absorptions is observed, reaching $\Delta$Vr=20$\div$50 km/s. A combination of the parameters: reduced metallicity [Met/H]$_{\odot}=-0.28$, increased nitrogen abundance [N/Fe]=+1.10, large spatial velocity, high luminosity, a strong variability of the emission-absorption profiles of HI lines, splitting of metal absorptions at different observation moments and the variability of the velocity field in the atmosphere allow us to consider V534 Lyr as a pulsating star in the instability band near the HB and belonging to the thick disk of our Galaxy.

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V. Klochkova, E. Sendzikas and E. Chentsov
Tue, 20 Feb 18

Comments: 21 pages, 7 figures, 4 tables