Dynamical equivalence, the origin of the Galactic field stellar and binary population, and the initial radius–mass relation of embedded clusters [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1711.07987


In order to allow a better understanding of the origin of Galactic field populations, dynamical equivalence of stellar-dynamical systems has been postulated by Kroupa and Belloni et al. to allow mapping of solutions of the initial conditions of embedded clusters such that they yield, after a period of dynamical processing, the Galactic field population. Dynamically equivalent systems are defined to initially and finally have the same distribution functions of periods, mass ratios and eccentricities of binary stars. Here we search for dynamically equivalent clusters using the {\sc mocca} code. The simulations confirm that dynamically equivalent solutions indeed exist. The result is that the solution space is next to identical to the radius–mass relation of Marks \& Kroupa, $\left( r_h/{\rm pc} \right)= 0.1^{+0.07}{-0.04}\, \left( M{\rm ecl}/{\rm M}_\odot \right)^{0.13\pm0.04}$. This relation is in good agreement with the observed density of molecular cloud clumps. According to the solutions, the time-scale to reach dynamical equivalence is about 0.5~Myr which is, interestingly, consistent with the lifetime of ultra-compact HII regions and the time-scale needed for gas expulsion to be active in observed very young clusters as based on their dynamical modelling.

Read this paper on arXiv…

D. Belloni, P. Kroupa, H. Rocha-Pinto, et. al.
Thu, 23 Nov 17
33/52

Comments: 6 pages, 2 figures; accepted for publication in MNRAS

Declining rotation curves at $z=2$: A natural phenomenon in $Λ$CDM cosmology [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1711.07985


Selecting disk galaxies from the cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation Magneticum Pathfinder we show that almost half of our poster child disk galaxies at $z=2$ show significantly declining rotation curves and low dark matter fractions, very similar to recently reported observations. These galaxies do not show any anomalous behavior, reside in standard dark matter halos and typically grow significantly in mass until $z=0$, where they span all morphological classes, including disk galaxies matching present day rotation curves and observed dark matter fractions. Our findings demonstrate that declining rotation curves and low dark matter fractions in rotation dominated galaxies at $z=2$ appear naturally within the $\Lambda$CDM paradigm and reflect the complex baryonic physics, which plays a role at the peak epoch of star-formation. In addition, we find that dispersion dominated galaxies at $z=2$, which host a significant gas disk, exhibit similar shaped rotation curves as the disk galaxy population, rendering it difficult to differentiate between these two populations with currently available observation techniques.

Read this paper on arXiv…

A. Teklu, R. Remus, K. Dolag, et. al.
Thu, 23 Nov 17
41/52

Comments: 6 pages, 4 figures, submitted to ApJ Letters, www.magneticum.org

Revisiting the bulge-halo conspiracy II: Towards explaining its puzzling dependence on redshift [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1711.07986


We carry out a systematic investigation of the total mass density profile of massive (Mstar~3e11 Msun) early-type galaxies and its dependence on redshift, specifically in the range 0<z<1. We start from a large sample of SDSS early-type galaxies with stellar masses and effective radii measured assuming two different profiles, de Vaucouleurs and S\'{e}rsic. We assign dark matter haloes to galaxies via abundance matching relations with standard LCDM profiles and concentrations. We then compute the total, mass-weighted density slope at the effective radius gamma’, and study its redshift dependence at fixed stellar mass. We find that a necessary condition to induce an increasingly flatter gamma’ at higher redshifts, as suggested by current strong lensing data, is to allow the intrinsic stellar profile of massive galaxies to be S\'{e}rsic and the input S\'{e}rsic index n to vary with redshift approximately as n(z)~(1+z)^(-1). This conclusion holds irrespective of the input Mstar-Mhalo relation, the assumed stellar initial mass function, or even the chosen level of adiabatic contraction in the model. Secondary contributors to the observed redshift evolution of gamma’ may come from an increased contribution at higher redshifts of adiabatic contraction and/or bottom-light stellar initial mass functions. The strong lensing selection effects we have simulated seem not to contribute to this effect. A steadily increasing S\'{e}rsic index with cosmic time is supported by independent observations, though it is not yet clear whether cosmological hierarchical models (e.g., mergers) are capable of reproducing such a fast and sharp evolution.

Read this paper on arXiv…

F. Shankar, A. Sonnenfeld, P. Grylls, et. al.
Thu, 23 Nov 17
46/52

Comments: 14 pages, 8 figures. MNRAS, accepted. Main result of the paper in Figure 2

The MASIV Survey IV: relationship between intra-day scintillation and intrinsic variability of radio AGNs [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1711.08140


We investigate the relationship between 5 GHz interstellar scintillation (ISS) and 15 GHz intrinsic variability of compact, radio-selected AGNs drawn from the Microarcsecond Scintillation-Induced Variability (MASIV) Survey and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) blazar monitoring program. We discover that the strongest scintillators at 5 GHz (modulation index, $m_5 \geq 0.02$) all exhibit strong 15 GHz intrinsic variability ($m_{15} \geq 0.1$). This relationship can be attributed mainly to the mutual dependence of intrinsic variability and ISS amplitudes on radio core compactness at $\sim 100\, \mu$as scales, and to a lesser extent, on their mutual dependences on source flux density, arcsec-scale core dominance and redshift. However, not all sources displaying strong intrinsic variations show high amplitude scintillation, since ISS is also strongly dependent on Galactic line-of-sight scattering properties. This observed relationship between intrinsic variability and ISS highlights the importance of optimizing the observing frequency, cadence, timespan and sky coverage of future radio variability surveys, such that these two effects can be better distinguished to study the underlying physics. For the full MASIV sample, we find that Fermi-detected gamma-ray loud sources exhibit significantly higher 5 GHz ISS amplitudes than gamma-ray quiet sources. This relationship is weaker than the known correlation between gamma-ray loudness and the 15 GHz variability amplitudes, most likely due to jet opacity effects.

Read this paper on arXiv…

J. Koay, J. Macquart, D. Jauncey, et. al.
Thu, 23 Nov 17
2/52

Comments: 18 pages, 13 figures, 5 tables, resubmitted to MNRAS after minor revision

CO excitation in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 34: stars, shock or AGN driven? [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1711.07995


We present a detailed analysis of the X-ray and molecular gas emission in the nearby galaxy NGC 34, to constrain the properties of molecular gas, and assess whether, and to what extent, the radiation produced by the accretion onto the central black hole affects the CO line emission. We analyse the CO Spectral Line Energy Distribution (SLED) as resulting mainly from Herschel and ALMA data, along with X-ray data from NuSTAR and XMM-Newton. The X-ray data analysis suggests the presence of a heavily obscured AGN with an intrinsic luminosity of L$_{\rm{1-100\,keV}} \simeq 4.0\times10^{42}$ erg s$^{-1}$. ALMA high resolution data ($\theta \simeq 0.2”$) allows us to scan the nuclear region down to a spatial scale of $\approx 100$ pc for the CO(6-5) transition. We model the observed SLED using Photo-Dissociation Region (PDR), X-ray-Dominated Region (XDR), and shock models, finding that a combination of a PDR and an XDR provides the best fit to the observations. The PDR component, characterized by gas density ${\rm log}(n/{\rm cm^{-3}})=2.5$ and temperature $T=30$ K, reproduces the low-J CO line luminosities. The XDR is instead characterised by a denser and warmer gas (${\rm log}(n/{\rm cm^{-3}})=4.5$, $T =65$ K), and is necessary to fit the high-J transitions. The addition of a third component to account for the presence of shocks has been also tested but does not improve the fit of the CO SLED. We conclude that the AGN contribution is significant in heating the molecular gas in NGC 34.

Read this paper on arXiv…

M. Mingozzi, L. Vallini, F. Pozzi, et. al.
Thu, 23 Nov 17
5/52

Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS. 10 pages, 6 figures

Revisiting the bulge-halo conspiracy II: Towards explaining its puzzling dependence on redshift [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1711.07986


We carry out a systematic investigation of the total mass density profile of massive (Mstar~3e11 Msun) early-type galaxies and its dependence on redshift, specifically in the range 0<z<1. We start from a large sample of SDSS early-type galaxies with stellar masses and effective radii measured assuming two different profiles, de Vaucouleurs and S\'{e}rsic. We assign dark matter haloes to galaxies via abundance matching relations with standard LCDM profiles and concentrations. We then compute the total, mass-weighted density slope at the effective radius gamma’, and study its redshift dependence at fixed stellar mass. We find that a necessary condition to induce an increasingly flatter gamma’ at higher redshifts, as suggested by current strong lensing data, is to allow the intrinsic stellar profile of massive galaxies to be S\'{e}rsic and the input S\'{e}rsic index n to vary with redshift approximately as n(z)~(1+z)^(-1). This conclusion holds irrespective of the input Mstar-Mhalo relation, the assumed stellar initial mass function, or even the chosen level of adiabatic contraction in the model. Secondary contributors to the observed redshift evolution of gamma’ may come from an increased contribution at higher redshifts of adiabatic contraction and/or bottom-light stellar initial mass functions. The strong lensing selection effects we have simulated seem not to contribute to this effect. A steadily increasing S\'{e}rsic index with cosmic time is supported by independent observations, though it is not yet clear whether cosmological hierarchical models (e.g., mergers) are capable of reproducing such a fast and sharp evolution.

Read this paper on arXiv…

F. Shankar, A. Sonnenfeld, P. Grylls, et. al.
Thu, 23 Nov 17
8/52

Comments: 14 pages, 8 figures. MNRAS, accepted. Main result of the paper in Figure 2

Resolving the Internal Structure of Circum-Galactic Medium using Gravitationally Lensed Quasars [GA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1711.08131


We study the internal structure of the Circum-Galactic Medium (CGM), using 29 spectra of 13 gravitationally lensed quasars with image separation angles of a few arcseconds, which correspond to 100 pc to 10 kpc in physical distances. After separating metal absorption lines detected in the spectra into high-ions with ionization parameter (IP) $>$ 40 eV and low-ions with IP $<$ 20 eV, we find that i) the fraction of absorption lines that are detected in only one of the lensed images is larger for low-ions ($\sim$16%) than high-ions ($\sim$2%), ii) the fractional difference of equivalent widths ($EW$s) between the lensed images is almost same (${\rm d}EW$ $\sim$ 0.2) for both groups although the low-ions have a slightly larger variation, and iii) weak low-ion absorbers tend to have larger ${\rm d}EW$ compared to weak high-ion absorbers. We construct simple models to reproduce these observed properties and investigate the distribution of physical quantities such as size and location of absorbers, using some free parameters. Our best models for absorbers with high-ions and low-ions suggest that i) an overall size of the CGM is at least $\sim$ 500 kpc, ii) a size of spherical clumpy cloud is $\sim$ 1 kpc or smaller, and iii) only high-ion absorbers can have diffusely distributed homogeneous component throughout the CGM. We infer that a high ionization absorber distributes almost homogeneously with a small-scale internal fluctuation, while a low ionization absorber consists of a large number of small-scale clouds in the diffusely distributed higher ionized region. This is the first result to investigate the internal small-scale structure of the CGM, based on the large number of gravitationally lensed quasar spectra.

Read this paper on arXiv…

S. Koyamada, T. Misawa, N. Inada, et. al.
Thu, 23 Nov 17
10/52

Comments: 13 pages, 8 figures, 3 tables, accepted for publication in ApJ