On the Intermediate Line Region in AGNs [GA]


In this paper we explore the intermediate line region (ILR) by using the photoionisation simulations of the gas clouds present at different radial distances from the center, corresponding to the locations from BLR out to NLR in four types of AGNs. We let for the presence of dust whenever conditions allow for dust existence. All spectral shapes are taken from the recent multi-wavelength campaigns. The cloud density decreases with distance as a power law. We found that the slope of the power law density profile does not affect the line emissivity radial profiles of major emission lines: H${\beta}$, He~II, Mg~II, C~III] ~and [O~III]. When the density of the cloud at the sublimation radius is as high as 10$^{11.5}$ cm$^{-3}$, the ILR should clearly be seen in the observations independently of the shape of the illuminating radiation. Moreover, our result is valid for low ionization nuclear emission regions of active galaxies.

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T. Adhikari, A. Rozanska, K. Hryniewicz, et. al.
Fri, 22 Sep 17

Comments: 8 pages, 2 figures, Accepted for publication in the Journal Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences

Galaxy evolution in protoclusters [GA]


We investigate galaxy evolution in protoclusters using a semi-analytic model applied to the Millennium Simulation, scaled to a Planck cosmology. We show that the model reproduces the observed behaviour of the star formation history (SFH) both in protoclusters and the field. The rate of star formation peaks $\sim0.7\,{\rm Gyr}$ earlier in protoclusters than in the field and declines more rapidly afterwards. This results in protocluster galaxies forming significantly earlier: 80% of their stellar mass is already formed by $z=1.4$, but only 45% of the field stellar mass has formed by this time. The model predicts that field and protocluster galaxies have similar average specific star-formation rates (sSFR) at $z>3$, and we find evidence of an enhancement of star formation in the dense protoclusters at early times. At $z<3$, protoclusters have lower sSFRs, resulting in the disparity between the SFHs. We show that the stellar mass functions of protoclusters are top-heavy compared with the field due to the early formation of massive galaxies, and the disruption and merging of low-mass satellite galaxies in the main haloes. The fundamental cause of the different SFHs and mass functions is that dark matter haloes are biased tracers of the dark matter density field: the high density of haloes and the top-heavy halo mass function in protoclusters result in the early formation then rapid merging and quenching of galaxies. We compare our results with observations from the literature, and highlight which observables provide the most informative tests of galaxy formation.

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S. Muldrew, N. Hatch and E. Cooke
Fri, 22 Sep 17

Comments: 14 pages, 9 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS

A census of radio-selected AGN on the COSMOS field and of their FIR properties [GA]


We use the new catalogue by Laigle et al. (2016) to provide a full census of VLA-COSMOS radio sources. We identify 90% of such sources and sub-divide them into AGN and star-forming galaxies on the basis of their radio luminosity. The AGN sample is COMPLETE with respect to radio selection at all z<3.5. Out of 704 AGN, 272 have a counterpart in the Herschel maps. By exploiting the better statistics of the new sample, we confirm the results of Magliocchetti et al. (2014): the probability for a radio-selected AGN to be detected at FIR wavelengths is both a function of radio luminosity and redshift, whereby powerful sources are more likely FIR emitters at earlier epochs. Such an emission is due to star-forming processes within the host galaxy. FIR emitters and non-FIR emitters only differentiate in the z<1 universe. At higher redshifts they are indistinguishable from each other, as there is no difference between FIR-emitting AGN and star-forming galaxies. Lastly, we focus on radio AGN which show AGN emission at other wavelengths. We find that MIR emission is mainly associated with ongoing star-formation and with sources which are smaller, younger and more radio luminous than the average parent population. X-ray emitters instead preferentially appear in more massive and older galaxies. We can therefore envisage an evolutionary track whereby the first phase of a radio-active AGN and of its host galaxy is associated with MIR emission, while at later stages the source becomes only active at radio wavelengths and possibly also in the X-ray.

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M. Magliocchetti, P. Popesso, M. Brusa, et. al.
Fri, 22 Sep 17

Comments: 15 pages, 17 figures, to appear in MNRAS

A Detached Protostellar Disk around a $\sim$0.2 $M_{\odot}$ protostar in a Possible Site of a Multiple Star Formation in a Dynamical Environment in Taurus [GA]


We report ALMA observations in 0.87 mm continuum and $^{12}$CO ($J$ = 3–2) toward a very low-luminosity ($<$0.1 $L_{\odot}$) protostar, which is deeply embedded in one of the densest core, MC27/L1521F, in Taurus with an indication of multiple star formation in a highly dynamical environment. The beam size corresponds to $\sim$20 AU, and we have clearly detected blueshifted/redshifted gas in $^{12}$CO associated with the protostar. The spatial/velocity distributions of the gas show there is a rotating disk with a size scale of $\sim$10 AU, a disk mass of $\sim$10$^{-4}$ $M_{\odot}$ and a central stellar mass of $\sim$0.2 $M_{\odot}$. The observed disk seems to be detachedfrom the surrounding dense gas although it is still embedded at the center of the core whose density is $\sim$10$^{6}$ cm$^{-3}$. The current low outflow activity and the very-low luminosity indicate that the mass accretion rate onto the protostar is extremely low in spite of a very early stage of star formation. We may be witnessing the final stage of the formation of $\sim$0.2 $M_{\odot}$ protostar. However, we cannot explain the observed low-luminosity with the standard pre-main-sequence evolutionary track, unless we assume cold accretion with an extremely small initial radius of the protostar ($\sim$0.65 $R_\odot$). These facts may challenge our current understanding of the low-mass star formation, in particular, the mass accretion process onto the protostar and the circumstellar disk.

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K. Tokuda, T. Onishi, K. Saigo, et. al.
Fri, 22 Sep 17

Comments: 9 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal

Multiple origins for the DLA at $z_\mathrm{abs}=0.313$ toward PKS 1127$-$145 indicated by a complex dust depletion pattern of Ca, Ti, and Mn [GA]


We investigate the dust depletion properties of optically thick gas in and around galaxies and its origin we study in detail the dust depletion patterns of Ti, Mn, and Ca in the multi-component damped Lyman-$\alpha$ (DLA) absorber at $z_\mathrm{abs}=0.313$ toward the quasar PKS 1127$-$145.} We performed a detailed spectral analysis of the absorption profiles of CaII, MnII, TiII, and NaI associated with the DLA toward PKS 1127$-$145, based on optical high-resolution data obtained with the UVES instrument at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). We obtained column densities and Doppler-parameters for the ions listed above and determine their gas-phase abundances, from which we conclude on their dust depletion properties. We compared the Ca and Ti depletion properties of this DLA with that of other DLAs. One of the six analyzed absorption components shows a striking underabundance of Ti and Mn in the gas-phase, indicating the effect of dust depletion for these elements and a locally enhanced dust-to-gas ratio. In this DLA and in other similar absorbers, the MnII abundance follows that of TiII very closely, implying that both ions are equally sensitive to the dust depletion effects. Our analysis indicates that the DLA toward PKS 1127$-$145 has multiple origins. With its narrow line width and its strong dust depletion, component 3 points toward the presence of a neutral gas disk from a faint LSB galaxy in front of PKS 1127$-$145, while the other, more diffuse and dust-poor, absorption components possibly are related to tidal gas features from the interaction between the various, optically confirmed galaxy-group members. In general, the Mn/CaII ratio in sub-DLAs and DLAs possibly serves as an important indicator to discriminate between dust-rich and dust-poor in neutral gas in and around galaxies.

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C. Guber, P. Richter and M. Wendt
Fri, 22 Sep 17

Comments: 10 pages, 8 figures, accepted for A&A

Measuring black hole mass of type I active galactic nuclei by spectropolarimetry [GA]


Black hole (BH) mass of Type I active galactic nuclei (AGN) can be measured or estimated through either reverberation mapping (RM) or empirical $R-L$ relation, however, both of them suffer from uncertainties of the virial factor ($f_{\rm BLR}$), thus limiting the measurement accuracy. In this letter, we make an effort to investigate $f_{\rm BLR}$ through polarised spectra of the broad-line regions (BLR) arisen from electrons in the equatorial plane. Given the BLR composed of discrete clouds with Keplerian velocity around the central BH, we simulate a large number of spectra of total and polarised flux with wide ranges of parameters of the BLR model and equatorial scatters. We find that the $f_{\rm BLR}$-distribution of polarised spectra is much narrower than that of total ones. This provides a way of n accurately estimating BH mass from single spectropolarimetric observations of type I AGN whose equatorial scatters are identified.

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Y. Songsheng and J. Wang
Fri, 22 Sep 17

Comments: MNRAS Letters (accepted): 5 pages, 3 figures

Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope Observations of Head-Tail Radio Galaxies [GA]


We present results from a study of seven large known head-tail radio galaxies based on observations using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at 240 and 610 MHz. These observations are used to study the radio morphologies and distribution of the spectral indices across the sources. The overall morphology of the radio tails of these sources is suggestive of random motions of the optical host around the cluster potential. The presence of the multiple bends an d wiggles in several head-tail sources is possibly due to the precessing radio jets. We find steepening of the spectral index along the radio tails. The prevailing equipartition magnetic field also decreases a long the radio tails of these sources. These steepening trends are attributed to the synchrotron aging of plasma toward the ends of the tails. The dynamical ages of these sample sources have been estimated to be ~100 Myr, which is a factor of six more than the age estimates from the radiative losses due to synchrotron cooling.

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B. Sebastian, D. Lal and A. Rao
Fri, 22 Sep 17

Comments: Accepted for publication in Astronomical Journal