GOLDRUSH. II. Clustering of Galaxies at $z\sim 4-6$ Revealed with the Half-Million Dropouts Over the 100 deg$^2$ Area Corresponding to 1 Gpc$^3$ [GA]

We present clustering properties from 579,492 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at $z\sim4-6$ over the 100 deg$^2$ sky (corresponding to a 1.4 Gpc$^3$ volume) identified in early data of the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Subaru strategic program survey. We derive angular correlation functions (ACFs) of the HSC LBGs with unprecedentedly high statistical accuracies at $z\sim4-6$, and compare them with the halo occupation distribution (HOD) models. We clearly identify significant ACF excesses in $10″<\theta<90″$, the transition scale between 1- and 2-halo terms, suggestive of the existence of the non-linear halo bias effect. Combining the HOD models and previous clustering measurements of faint LBGs at $z\sim4-7$, we investigate dark-matter halo mass ($M_\mathrm{h}$) of the $z\sim4-7$ LBGs and its correlation with various physical properties including the star-formation rate (SFR), the stellar-to-halo mass ratio (SHMR), and the dark-matter mass accretion rate ($\dot{M}\mathrm{h}$) over a wide-mass range of $M\mathrm{h}/M_\odot=4\times10^{10}-4\times10^{12}$. We find that the SHMR increases from $z\sim4$ to $7$ by a factor of $\sim4$ at $M_\mathrm{h}\simeq1\times10^{11}\ M_\odot$, while the SHMR shows no strong evolution in the similar redshift range at $M_\mathrm{h}\simeq1\times10^{12}\ M_\odot$. Interestingly, we identify a tight relation of $SFR/\dot{M}\mathrm{h}-M\mathrm{h}$ showing no significant evolution beyond 0.15 dex in this wide-mass range over $z\sim4-7$. This weak evolution suggests that the $SFR/\dot{M}\mathrm{h}-M\mathrm{h}$ relation is a fundamental relation in high-redshift galaxy formation whose star-formation activities are regulated by the dark-matter mass assembly.

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Y. Harikane, M. Ouchi, Y. Ono, et. al.
Mon, 24 Apr 17

Comments: 31 pages, 25 figures, submitted to a special issue of PASJ

SILCC-Zoom: The dynamical and chemical evolution of molecular clouds [GA]

We present 3D simulations of the formation process of two molecular clouds (MCs) within their larger-scale galactic environment. Using adaptive mesh refinement, we model the two MCs within the SILCC project with an unprecedented resolution of 0.06 pc combined with a chemical network for the formation of H$2$ and CO including (self-) shielding and important thermal processes. The MCs form within a few Myr with mass growth rates of up to 10$^{-2}$ M$\rm{sun}$ yr$^{-1}$ and final masses of $\sim$ 50000 M$\rm{sun}$. We show that the usage of different definitions for MCs by thresholds in density, H$_2$ or CO mass fraction significantly change the inferred cloud properties. While CO traces well the evolution of dense gas with $n \geq$ 300 cm$^{-3}$, H$_2$ is also found in gas with lower number density ($n \lesssim$ 30 cm$^{-3}$) due to turbulent mixing. The CO-to-H$_2$ ratio increases within the first 2 Myr reaching a value of $\sim$ 1.8 $\times$ 10$^{-4}$ at later stages. The $X\rm{CO}$ factor, however, is rather time-independent with values of 1 – 4 $\times$ 10$^{20}$ cm$^{-2}$ (K km s$^{-1}$)$^{-1}$. We show that a spatial resolution of $\sim$ 0.1 pc is required to accurately model the chemical, dynamical, and structural evolution of MCs. At a coarser resolution the mass, velocity dispersion, and chemical abundances of the clouds are underestimated. Furthermore, we show that the progressive increase of resolution has to occur over a time of 1 – 1.5 Myr. This ensures that the maximum refinement level is reached within the free-fall time of the densest structures and avoids the spurious formation large-scale, rotating objects by unresolved turbulent flows. In addition, the accelerated formation of chemical species in dense, turbulent environments is captured properly. Finally, we demonstrate that $\gtrsim$ 200 time steps should be spent on each refinement level to avoid grid artefacts.

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D. Seifried, S. Walch, P. Girichidis, et. al.
Mon, 24 Apr 17

Comments: 23 pages, 21 figures, submitted to MNRAS, comments are welcome

Galaxy Zoo: The interplay of quenching mechanisms in the group environment [GA]

Does the environment of a galaxy directly influence the quenching history of a galaxy? Here we investigate the detailed morphological structures and star formation histories of a sample of SDSS group galaxies with both classifications from Galaxy Zoo 2 and NUV detections in GALEX. We use the optical and NUV colours to infer the quenching time and rate describing a simple exponentially declining SFH for each galaxy, along with a control sample of field galaxies. We find that the time since quenching and the rate of quenching do not correlate with the relative velocity of a satellite but are correlated with the group potential. This quenching occurs within an average quenching timescale of $\sim2.5~\rm{Gyr}$ from star forming to complete quiescence, during an average infall time (from $\sim 10R_{200}$ to $0.01R_{200}$) of $\sim 2.6~\rm{Gyr}$. Our results suggest that the environment does play a direct role in galaxy quenching through quenching mechanisms which are correlated with the group potential, such as harassment, interactions or starvation. Environmental quenching mechanisms which are correlated with satellite velocity, such as ram pressure stripping, are not the main cause of quenching in the group environment. We find that no single mechanism dominates over another, except in the most extreme environments or masses. Instead an interplay of mergers, mass & morphological quenching and environment driven quenching mechanisms dependent on the group potential drive galaxy evolution in groups.

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R. Smethurst, C. Lintott, S. Bamford, et. al.
Mon, 24 Apr 17

Comments: 20 pages, 11 figures

Cloud structure of three Galactic infrared dark star-forming regions from combining ground and space based bolometric observations [GA]

We have modified the iterative procedure introduced by Lin et al. (2016), to systematically combine the submm images taken from ground based (e.g., CSO, JCMT, APEX) and space (e.g., Herschel, Planck) telescopes. We applied the updated procedure to observations of three well studied Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs): G11.11-0.12, G14.225-0.506 and G28.34+0.06, and then performed single-component, modified black-body fits to derive $\sim$10$”$ resolution dust temperature and column density maps. The derived column density maps show that these three IRDCs exhibit complex filamentary structures embedding with rich clumps/cores. We compared the column density probability distribution functions (N-PDFs) and two-point correlation (2PT) functions of the column density field between these IRDCs with several OB cluster-forming regions. Based on the observed correlation and measurements, and complementary hydrodynamical simulations for a 10$^{4}$ $\rm M_{\odot}$ molecular cloud, we hypothesize that cloud evolution can be better characterized by the evolution of the (column) density distribution function and the relative power of dense structures as a function of spatial scales, rather than merely based on the presence of star-forming activity. Based on the small analyzed sample, we propose four evolutionary stages, namely: {\it cloud integration, stellar assembly, cloud pre-dispersal and dispersed-cloud.} The initial {\it cloud integration} stage and the final {\it dispersed cloud} stage may be distinguished from the two intermediate stages by a steeper than $-$4 power-law index of the N-PDF. The {\it cloud integration} stage and the subsequent {\it stellar assembly} stage are further distinguished from each other by the larger luminosity-to-mass ratio ($>$40 $\rm L_{\odot}/M_{\odot}$) of the latter.

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Y. Lin, H. Liu, J. Dale, et. al.
Mon, 24 Apr 17

Comments: 14 pages, 13 figures; accepted for publication in ApJ

Investigating the Unification of LOFAR-detected powerful AGN in the Boötes Field [GA]

Low radio frequency surveys are important for testing unified models of radio-loud quasars and radio galaxies. Intrinsically similar sources that are randomly oriented on the sky will have different projected linear sizes. Measuring the projected linear sizes of these sources provides an indication of their orientation. Steep-spectrum isotropic radio emission allows for orientation-free sample selection at low radio frequencies. We use a new radio survey of the Bo\”otes field at 150 MHz made with the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) to select a sample of radio sources. We identify 44 radio galaxies and 16 quasars with powers $P>10^{25.5}$ W Hz$^{-1}$ at 150 MHz using cross-matched multi-wavelength information from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES), which provides spectroscopic redshifts. We find that LOFAR-detected radio sources with steep spectra have projected linear sizes that are on average 4.4$\pm$1.4 larger than those with flat spectra. The projected linear sizes of radio galaxies are on average 3.1$\pm$1.0 larger than those of quasars (2.0$\pm$0.3 after correcting for redshift evolution). Combining these results with three previous surveys, we find that the projected linear sizes of radio galaxies and quasars depend on redshift but not on power. The projected linear size ratio does not correlate with either parameter. The LOFAR data is consistent within the uncertainties with theoretical predictions of the correlation between the quasar fraction and linear size ratio, based on an orientation-based unification scheme.

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L. Morabito, W. Williams, K. Duncan, et. al.
Mon, 24 Apr 17

Comments: 14 pages, accepted for publication in MNRAS

Beta Dips in the Gaia Era: Simulation Predictions of the Galactic Velocity Anisotropy Parameter for Stellar Halos [GA]

The velocity anisotropy parameter, beta, is a measure of the kinematic state of orbits in the stellar halo which holds promise for constraining the merger history of the Milky Way (MW). We determine global trends for beta as a function of radius from three suites of simulations, including accretion only and cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We find that both types of simulations are consistent and predict strong radial anisotropy (<beta>~0.7) for Galactocentric radii greater than 10 kpc. Previous observations of beta for the MW’s stellar halo claim a detection of an isotropic or tangential “dip” at r~20 kpc. Using the N-body+SPH simulations, we investigate the temporal persistence, population origin, and severity of “dips” in beta. We find dips in the in situ stellar halo are long-lived, while dips in the accreted stellar halo are short-lived and tied to the recent accretion of satellite material. We also find that a major merger as early as z~1 can result in a present day low (isotropic to tangential) value of beta over a wide range of radii. While all of these mechanisms are plausible drivers for the beta dip observed in the MW, in the simulations, each mechanism has a unique metallicity signature associated with it, implying that future spectroscopic surveys could distinguish between them. Since an accurate knowledge of beta(r) is required for measuring the mass of the MW halo, we note significant transient dips in beta could cause an overestimate of the halo’s mass when using spherical Jeans equation modeling.

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S. Loebman, M. Valluri, K. Hattori, et. al.
Mon, 24 Apr 17

Comments: 11 pages, 5 figures, submitted to ApJ, companion paper to Hattori et al. (2017)

Gas rotation, shocks and outflow within the inner 3 kpc of the radio galaxy 3C 33 [GA]

We present optical integral field spectroscopy $-$ obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph $-$ of the inner $4.0 \times 5.8$ kpc$^2$ of the narrow line radio galaxy 3C 33 at a spatial resolution of 0.58 kpc. The gas emission shows three brightest structures: a strong knot of nuclear emission and two other knots at $\approx 1.4$ kpc south-west and north-east of the nucleus along the ionization axis. We detect two kinematic components in the emission lines profiles, with a “broader component” (with velocity dispersion $\sigma > 150$ km s$^{-1}$) being dominant within a $\sim$ 1 kpc wide strip (“the nuclear strip”) running from the south-east to the north-west, perpendicular to the radio jet, and a narrower component ($\sigma < 100$ km s$^{-1}$) dominating elsewhere. Centroid velocity maps reveal a rotation pattern with velocity amplitudes reaching $\sim \pm 350$ km s$^{-1}$ in the region dominated by the narrow component, while residual blueshifts and redshifts relative to rotation are observed in the nuclear strip, where we also observe the highest values of the [N II]/H{\alpha}, [S II]/H{\alpha} and [O I]/H{\alpha} line ratios, and an increase of the gas temperature ($\sim 18000$ K), velocity dispersion and electron density ($\sim 500$ cm$^{-3}$). We interpret these residuals and increased line ratios as due to a lateral expansion of the ambient gas in the nuclear strip due to shocks produced by the passage of the radio jet. The effect of this expansion in the surrounding medium is very small, as its estimated kinetic power represents only $2.6 – 3.0 \times 10^{-5}$ of the AGN bolometric luminosity. A possible signature of inflow is revealed by an increase in the [O I]/H{\alpha} ratio values and velocity dispersions in the shape of two spiral arms extending to 2.3 kpc north-east and south-west from the nucleus.

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G. Couto, T. Storchi-Bergmann and A. Schnorr-Muller
Mon, 24 Apr 17

Comments: 16 pages, 14 figures, accepted by MNRAS