Deriving High-Precision Radial Velocities [EPA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1711.08347


This chapter describes briefly the key aspects behind the derivation of precise radial velocities. I start by defining radial velocity precision in the context of astrophysics in general and exoplanet searches in particular. Next I discuss the different basic elements that constitute a spectrograph, and how these elements and overall technical choices impact on the derived radial velocity precision. Then I go on to discuss the different wavelength calibration and radial velocity calculation techniques, and how these are intimately related to the spectrograph’s properties. I conclude by presenting some interesting examples of planets detected through radial velocity, and some of the new-generation instruments that will push the precision limit further.

Read this paper on arXiv…

P. Figueira
Thu, 23 Nov 17
4/52

Comments: Lecture presented at the IVth Azores International Advanced School in Space Sciences on “Asteroseismology and Exoplanets: Listening to the Stars and Searching for New Worlds” (arXiv:1709.00645), which took place in Horta, Azores Islands, Portugal in July 2016

Planet-driven spiral arms in protoplanetary disks: II. Implications [EPA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1711.08166


In Paper I (Bae & Zhu 2017), we explained how a planet excites multiple spiral arms in a protoplanetary disk. To examine whether various characteristics of observed spiral arms can be used to constrain the masses of unseen planets and their positions within their disks, we carry out two-dimensional simulations varying planet mass and disk gas temperature. A larger number of spiral arms form with a smaller planet mass and a lower disk temperature. For a range of disk temperature characterized by the disk aspect ratio $0.04 \leq (h/r)p \leq 0.15$, three or fewer spiral arms are excited interior to a planet’s orbit when $M_p/M* \gtrsim 3\times10^{-4}$ and two spiral arms when $M_p/M_* \gtrsim 3\times10^{-3}$. Exterior to a planet’s orbit, multiple spiral arms can form only in cold disks with $(h/r)_p \lesssim 0.06$. Constraining the planet mass with the pitch angle of spiral arms requires accurate disk temperature measurements that might be challenging even with ALMA. However, the property that the pitch angle of planet-driven spiral arms decreases away from the planet can be a powerful diagnostic to determine whether the planet is located interior or exterior to the observed spirals. The arm-to-arm separations increase as a function of planet mass, consistent with previous studies; however, we find that the exact slope depends on disk temperature as well as the radial location where the arm-to-arm separations are measured. We apply these diagnostics to the spiral arms seen in MWC 758 and Elias 2-27. Finally, we discuss the possibility that Jupiter’s core creates multiple pressure bumps in the solar nebula through spiral shocks, and show how it can help explain meteoritic properties.

Read this paper on arXiv…

J. Bae and Z. Zhu
Thu, 23 Nov 17
13/52

Comments: 14 pages, 10 figures, Figure 2 size reduced to meet the requirement, submitted to the ApJ

Exo-lightning radio emission: the case study of HAT-P-11b [EPA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1711.08053


Lightning induced radio emission has been observed on solar system planets. Lecavelier des Etangs et al. [2013] carried out radio transit observations of the exoplanet HAT-P-11b, and suggested a tentative detection of a radio signal. Here, we explore the possibility of the radio emission having been produced by lightning activity on the exoplanet, following and expanding the work of Hodos\’an et al. [2016a]. After a summary of our previous work [Hodos\’an et al. 2016a], we extend it with a parameter study. The lightning activity of the hypothetical storm is largely dependent on the radio spectral roll-off, $n$, and the flash duration, $\tau_\mathrm{fl}$. The best-case scenario would require a flash density of the same order of magnitude as can be found during volcanic eruptions on Earth. On average, $3.8 \times 10^6$ times larger flash densities than the Earth-storms with the largest lightning activity is needed to produce the observed signal from HAT-P-11b. Combined with the results of Hodos\’an et al. [2016a] regarding the chemical effects of planet-wide thunderstorms, we conclude that future radio and infrared observations may lead to lightning detection on planets outside the solar system.

Read this paper on arXiv…

G. Hodosan, C. Helling and P. Rimmer
Thu, 23 Nov 17
19/52

Comments: Accepted to the Conference Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Planetary, Solar and Heliospheric Radio Emissions (PRE 8), held in Seggauberg near Leibnitz/Graz, Austria, October 25-27, 2016. 12 pages, 2 figures

Modelling the atmospheric composition of warm exoplanets [EPA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1711.08433


Since the discovery of the first extrasolar planet more than twenty years ago, we have discovered more than three thousand planets orbiting stars other than the Sun. Current observational instruments (on board the Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer, and on ground-based facilities) allowed the scientific community to obtain important information on the physical and chemical properties of these planets. However, for a more in-depth characterisation of these worlds, more powerful telescopes are needed. Thanks to the high sensitivity of their instruments, the next generation of space observatories (e.g. James Webb Space Telescope, ARIEL) will provide observations of unprecedented quality, allowing us to extract far more information than what was previously possible. Such high quality observations will provide constraints on theoretical models of exoplanet atmospheres and lead to a greater understanding of the physics and chemistry. Important modelling efforts have been carried out during the past few years, showing that numerous parameters and processes (such as the element abundances, temperature, mixing, etc.) are likely to effect the atmospheric composition of exoplanets and subsequently the observable spectra. In this manuscript, we review the different parameters that can influence the molecular composition of exoplanet atmospheres. We also consider future developments that are necessary to improve atmospheric models, driven by the need to interpret the available observations and show how ARIEL is going to improve our view and characterisation of exoplanet atmospheres.

Read this paper on arXiv…

O. Venot, B. Drummond and Y. Miguel
Thu, 23 Nov 17
34/52

Comments: Submitted to Experimental Astronomy, ARIEL Special Issue

Planet-driven spiral arms in protoplanetary disks: I. Formation mechanism [EPA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1711.08161


Protoplanetary disk simulations show that a single planet can excite more than one spiral arm, possibly explaining recent observations of multiple spiral arms in some systems. In this paper, we explain the mechanism by which a planet excites multiple spiral arms in a protoplanetary disk. Contrary to previous speculations, the formation of both primary and additional arms can be understood as a linear process when the planet mass is sufficiently small. A planet resonantly interacts with epicyclic oscillations in the disk, launching spiral wave modes around the Lindblad resonances. When a set of wave modes is in phase, they can constructively interfere with each other and create a spiral arm. More than one spiral arm can form because such constructive interference can occur for different sets of wave modes, with the exact number and launching position of spiral arms dependent on the planet mass as well as the disk temperature profile. Non-linear effects become increasingly important as the planet mass increases, resulting in spiral arms with stronger shocks and thus larger pitch angles. This is found in common for both primary and additional arms. When a planet has a sufficiently large mass ($\gtrsim$ 3 thermal masses for $(h/r)_p=0.1$), only two spiral arms form interior to its orbit. The wave modes that would form a tertiary arm for smaller mass planets merge with the primary arm. Improvements in our understanding of the formation of spiral arms can provide crucial insights into the origin of observed spiral arms in protoplanetary disks.

Read this paper on arXiv…

J. Bae and Z. Zhu
Thu, 23 Nov 17
42/52

Comments: 16 pages, 14 figures, submitted to the ApJ

Enceladus's crust as a non-uniform thin shell: I Tidal deformations [EPA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1711.08236


The geologic activity at Enceladus’s south pole remains unexplained, though tidal deformations are probably the ultimate cause. Recent gravity and libration data indicate that Enceladus’s icy crust floats on a global ocean, is rather thin, and has a strongly non-uniform thickness. Tidal effects are enhanced by crustal thinning at the south pole, so that realistic models of tidal tectonics and dissipation should take into account the lateral variations of shell structure. I construct here the theory of non-uniform viscoelastic thin shells, allowing for depth-dependent rheology and large lateral variations of shell thickness and rheology. Coupling to tides yields two 2D linear partial differential equations of the 4th order on the sphere which take into account self-gravity, density stratification below the shell, and core viscoelasticity. If the shell is laterally uniform, the solution agrees with analytical formulas for tidal Love numbers; errors on displacements and stresses are less than 5% and 15%, respectively, if the thickness is less than 10% of the radius. If the shell is non-uniform, the tidal thin shell equations are solved as a system of coupled linear equations in a spherical harmonic basis. Compared to finite element models, thin shell predictions are similar for the deformations due to Enceladus’s pressurized ocean, but differ for the tides of Ganymede. If Enceladus’s shell is conductive with isostatic thickness variations, surface stresses are approximately inversely proportional to the local shell thickness. The radial tide is only moderately enhanced at the south pole. The combination of crustal thinning and convection below the poles can amplify south polar stresses by a factor of 10, but it cannot explain the apparent time lag between the maximum plume brightness and the opening of tiger stripes. In a second paper, I will study tidal dissipation in a non-uniform crust.

Read this paper on arXiv…

M. Beuthe
Thu, 23 Nov 17
47/52

Comments: 71 pages, 12 figures, 5 tables

Planet-driven spiral arms in protoplanetary disks: I. Formation mechanism [EPA]

http://arxiv.org/abs/1711.08161


Protoplanetary disk simulations show that a single planet can excite more than one spiral arm, possibly explaining recent observations of multiple spiral arms in some systems. In this paper, we explain the mechanism by which a planet excites multiple spiral arms in a protoplanetary disk. Contrary to previous speculations, the formation of both primary and additional arms can be understood as a linear process when the planet mass is sufficiently small. A planet resonantly interacts with epicyclic oscillations in the disk, launching spiral wave modes around the Lindblad resonances. When a set of wave modes is in phase, they can constructively interfere with each other and create a spiral arm. More than one spiral arm can form because such constructive interference can occur for different sets of wave modes, with the exact number and launching position of spiral arms dependent on the planet mass as well as the disk temperature profile. Non-linear effects become increasingly important as the planet mass increases, resulting in spiral arms with stronger shocks and thus larger pitch angles. This is found in common for both primary and additional arms. When a planet has a sufficiently large mass ($\gtrsim$ 3 thermal masses for $(h/r)_p=0.1$), only two spiral arms form interior to its orbit. The wave modes that would form a tertiary arm for smaller mass planets merge with the primary arm. Improvements in our understanding of the formation of spiral arms can provide crucial insights into the origin of observed spiral arms in protoplanetary disks.

Read this paper on arXiv…

J. Bae and Z. Zhu
Thu, 23 Nov 17
7/52

Comments: 16 pages, 14 figures, submitted to the ApJ