Magnetic monopole mass bounds from heavy ion collisions and neutron stars [CL]

Magnetic monopoles, if they exist, would be produced amply in strong magnetic fields and high temperatures via the thermal Schwinger process. Such circumstances arise in heavy ion collisions and in neutron stars, both of which imply lower bounds on the mass of possible magnetic monopoles. In showing this, we construct the cross section for pair production of magnetic monopoles in heavy ion collisions, which indicates that they are particularly promising for experimental searches such as MoEDAL.

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O. Gould and A. Rajantie
Mon, 22 May 17

Comments: 6 pages, 1 figure

Standard Model – Axion – Seesaw – H portal inflation [CL]

Extending the Standard Model with a new complex singlet scalar, right-handed neutrinos and a vector-like quark allows to simultaneously tackle several problems in particle physics and cosmology within a constrained framework that can be falsified by future probes of the cosmic microwave background, as well as by upcoming axion experiments. This Standard Model – Axion – Seesaw – H portal inflation theory (SMASH) provides predictive inflation and $H$ boson stabilization, and can explain baryogenesis, light neutrino masses, dark matter and the strong CP problem. The model contains a unique new mass scale which coincides with the axion decay constant, and also sets the scale for perturbative lepton-number violation processes. Testable predictions include a minimum value of the tensor-to-scalar ratio of $r\gtrsim 0.004$, a running of the spectral index $\alpha\gtrsim-8\times10^{-4}$, a change $\delta N_{\rm eff}\sim 0.03$ in the number of effective relativistic neutrinos, and an axion mass in the range $50\mu eV\leq m_A \leq 200 \mu eV$.

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C. Tamarit
Mon, 22 May 17

Comments: 8 pages, 2 figures, Contribution to the proceedings of the 52nd Rencontres de Moriond conference, Electroweak session, La Thuile (Italy) 2017

Stability of Einstein static universe in Eddington-inspire Born-Infeld theory [CL]

By considering the realization of emergent universe scenario in Eddington-inspire Born-Infeld (EiBI) theory, we study the stability of Einstein static universe filled with perfect fluid in EiBI theory against both the homogeneous and inhomogeneous scalar perturbations in this work. We find that in both the spatially flat and closed cases, the emergent universe scenario is no longer viable, since Einstein static universe cannot be stable against both the homogeneous and inhomogeneous scalar perturbations simultaneously. However, the emergent universe scenario survives in the spatially open case, while Einstein static universe can be stable under some conditions.

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S. Li and H. Wei
Mon, 22 May 17

Comments: 10 pages, revtex4

Oscillation modes of rapidly rotating neutron stars in scalar-tensor theories of gravity [CL]

We perform the first study of the oscillation frequencies of rapidly rotating neutron stars in alternative theories of gravity, focusing mainly on the fundamental $f$-modes. We concentrated on a particular class of alternative theories – the (massive) scalar-tensor theories. The generalization to rapid rotation is important because on one hand the rapid rotation can magnify the deviations from general relativity compared to the static case and on the other hand some of the most efficient emitters of gravitational radiation, such as the binary neutron star merger remnants, are supposed to be rotating close to their Kepler (mass-shedding) limits shortly after their formation. We have constructed several sequences of models starting from the nonrotating case and reaching up to the Kepler limit, with different values of the scalar-tensor theory coupling constant and the scalar field mass. The results show that the deviations from pure Einstein’s theory can be significant especially in the case of nonzero scalar field mass. An important property of the oscillation modes of rapidly rotating stars is that they can become secularly unstable due to the emission of gravitational radiation, that is so-called Chandrasekhar-Friedman-Schutz instability. Such unstable modes are efficient emitters of gravitational radiation. Our studies show that the inclusion of nonzero scalar field would decrease the threshold value of the normalized angular momentum where this instability stars to operate, but the growth time of the instability seems to be increased compared to pure general relativity.

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S. Yazadjiev, D. Doneva and K. Kokkotas
Mon, 22 May 17

Comments: 9 pages, 2 figures

The nonspinning binary black hole merger scenario revisited [CL]

We present the results of 14 simulations of nonspinning black hole binaries with mass ratios $q=m_1/m_2$ in the range $1/100\leq q\leq1$. For each of these simulations we perform three runs at increasing resolution to assess the finite difference errors and to extrapolate the results to infinite resolution. For $q\geq 1/6$, we follow the evolution of the binary typically for the last ten orbits prior to merger. By fitting the results of these simulations, we accurately model the peak luminosity, peak waveform frequency and amplitude, and the recoil of the remnant hole for unequal mass nonspinning binaries. We verify the accuracy of these new models and compare them to previously existing empirical formulas. These new fits provide a basis for a hierarchical approach to produce more accurate remnant formulas in the generic precessing case. They also provide input to gravitational waveform modeling.

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J. Healy, C. Lousto and Y. Zlochower
Mon, 22 May 17

Comments: 8 pages, 4 figures

Sgoldstino-less inflation and low energy SUSY breaking [CL]

We assess the range of validity of sgoldstino-less inflation in a scenario of low energy supersymmetry breaking. We first analyze the consistency conditions that an effective theory of the inflaton and goldstino superfields should satisfy in order to be faithfully described by a sgoldstino-less model. Enlarging the scope of previous studies, we investigate the case where the effective field theory cut-off, and hence also the sgoldstino mass, are inflaton-dependent. We then introduce a UV complete model where one can realize successfully sgoldstino-less inflation and gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking, combining the alpha-attractor mechanism and a weakly coupled model of spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry. In this class of models we find that, given current limits on superpartner masses, the gravitino mass has a lower bound of the order of the MeV, i.e. we cannot reach very low supersymmetry breaking scales. On the plus side, we recognize that in this framework, one can derive the complete superpartner spectrum as well as compute inflation observables, the reheating temperature, and address the gravitino overabundance problem. We then show that further constraints come from collider results and inflation observables. Their non trivial interplay seems a staple feature of phenomenological studies of supersymmetric inflationary models.

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R. Argurio, D. Coone, L. Heurtier, et. al.
Mon, 22 May 17

Comments: 40 pages, 4 figures

Diagnosing collisionless energy transfer using field-particle correlations: gyrokinetic turbulence [CL]

Determining the physical mechanisms that extract energy from turbulent fluctuations in weakly collisional magnetized plasmas is necessary for a more complete characterization of the behavior of a variety of space and astrophysical plasmas. Such a determination is complicated by the complex nature of the turbulence as well as observational constraints, chiefly that in situ measurements of such plasmas are typically only available at a single point in space. Recent work has shown that correlations between electric fields and particle velocity distributions constructed from single-point measurements produce a velocity-dependent signature of the collisionless damping mechanism. We extend this work by constructing field-particle correlations using data sets drawn from single points in strongly driven, turbulent, electromagnetic gyrokinetic simulations to demonstrate that this technique can identify the collisionless mechanisms operating in such systems. The correlation’s velocity-space structure agrees with expectations of resonant mechanisms transferring energy collisionlessly in turbulent systems. This work motivates the eventual application of field-particle correlations to spacecraft measurements in the solar wind, with the ultimate goal to determine the physical mechanisms that dissipate magnetized plasma turbulence.

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K. Klein, G. Howes and J. TenBarge
Fri, 19 May 17

Comments: 24 pages, 12 figures, submitted to the Journal of Plasma Physics