Reconstruction of the two-dimensional gravitational potential of galaxy clusters from X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich measurements [CEA]

The mass of galaxy clusters is not a direct observable, nonetheless it is commonly used to probe cosmological models. Based on the combination of all main cluster observables, that is, the X-ray emission, the thermal Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) signal, the velocity dispersion of the cluster galaxies, and gravitational lensing, the gravitational potential of galaxy clusters can be jointly reconstructed. We derive the two main ingredients required for this joint reconstruction: the potentials individually reconstructed from the observables and their covariance matrices, which act as a weight in the joint reconstruction. We show here the method to derive these quantities. The result of the joint reconstruction applied to a real cluster will be discussed in a forthcoming paper. We apply the Richardson-Lucy deprojection algorithm to data on a two-dimensional (2D) grid. We first test the 2D deprojection algorithm on a $\beta$-profile. Assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, we further reconstruct the gravitational potential of a simulated galaxy cluster based on synthetic SZ and X-ray data. We then reconstruct the projected gravitational potential of the massive and dynamically active cluster Abell 2142, based on the X-ray observations collected with XMM-Newton and the SZ observations from the Planck satellite. Finally, we compute the covariance matrix of the projected reconstructed potential of the cluster Abell 2142 based on the X-ray measurements collected with XMM-Newton. The gravitational potentials of the simulated cluster recovered from synthetic X-ray and SZ data are consistent, even though the potential reconstructed from X-rays shows larger deviations from the true potential. Regarding Abell 2142, the projected gravitational cluster potentials recovered from SZ and X-ray data reproduce well the projected potential inferred from gravitational-lensing observations. (abridged)

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C. Tchernin, M. Bartelmann, K. Huber, et. al.
Wed, 21 Feb 18

Comments: accepted for publication in the journal A&A

The Fifth Force in the Local Cosmic Web [CEA]

Extensions of the standard models of particle physics and cosmology may lead to the presence of long-range fifth forces whose strength and range depend on gravitational environment. Fifth forces on astrophysical scales are best studied in the cosmic web where perturbation theory breaks down. We present precision constraints on a symmetron- or chameleon-screened fifth force with Yukawa coupling — as well as an unscreened fifth force with differential coupling to galactic mass components — on megaparsec scales by searching for the displacement it predicts between galaxies’ stellar and gas mass centroids. Taking data from the ALFALFA HI survey, identifying galaxies’ gravitational environments with the maps of Desmond et al. (2018) and forward-modelling with a Bayesian likelihood framework, we set upper bounds on the strength of the fifth force relative to Newtonian gravity, $\Delta G/G$, from $\sim 10^{-2}$ ($1\sigma$) for range $\lambda_C = 50$ Mpc to $\sim 10$ for $\lambda_C = 500$ kpc ($f_{R0}<10^{-6}$). The analogous constraints without screening are $\sim 10^{-2}$ and $10^{-1}$. These are the strongest and among the only fifth force constraints on galaxy scales. We show how our results may be strengthened with future survey data and identify the key features of an observational programme for furthering fifth force tests beyond the Solar System.

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H. Desmond, P. Ferreira, G. Lavaux, et. al.
Wed, 21 Feb 18

Comments: 5 pages, 2 figures; PRL submitted

Cosmic Visions Dark Energy: Small Projects Portfolio [CEA]

Understanding cosmic acceleration is one of the key science drivers for astrophysics and high-energy physics in the coming decade (2014 P5 Report). With the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) and other new facilities beginning operations soon, we are entering an exciting phase during which we expect an order of magnitude improvement in constraints on dark energy and the physics of the accelerating Universe. This is a key moment for a matching Small Projects portfolio that can (1) greatly enhance the science reach of these flagship projects, (2) have immediate scientific impact, and (3) lay the groundwork for the next stages of the Cosmic Frontier Dark Energy program. In this White Paper, we outline a balanced portfolio that can accomplish these goals through a combination of observational, experimental, and theory and simulation efforts.

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K. Dawson, J. Frieman, K. Heitmann, et. al.
Wed, 21 Feb 18

Comments: 18 pages, prepared by the Comsmic Visions Dark Energy Panel for the US Department of Energy based on the dark energy community input

Search for low-frequency diffuse radio emission around a shock in the massive galaxy cluster MACS J0744.9+3927 [CEA]

Merging galaxy clusters produce low Mach number shocks in the intracluster medium. These shocks can accelerate electrons to relativistic energies that are detectable at radio frequencies. MACS J0744.9+3927 is a massive ($M_{500} = (11.8 \pm 2.8) \times 10^{14} M_{\odot}$), high-redshift ($z=0.6976$) cluster where a Bullet-type merger is presumed to have taken place. Sunyaev-Zel’dovich maps from MUSTANG indicate that a shock, with Mach number $\mathcal{M} = 1.0-2.9$ and an extension of $\sim 200$ kpc, sits near the centre of the cluster. The shock is also detected as a brightness and temperature discontinuity in X-ray observations. To search for diffuse radio emission associated with the merger, we have imaged the cluster with the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) at 120-165 MHz. Our LOFAR radio images reveal previously undetected AGN emission, but do not show clear cluster-scale diffuse emission in the form of a radio relic nor a radio halo. The region of the shock is on the western edge of AGN lobe emission from the brightest cluster galaxy. Correlating the flux of known shock-induced radio relics versus their size, we find that the radio emission overlapping the shocked region in MACS J0744.9+3927 is likely of AGN origin. We argue against the presence of a relic caused by diffusive shock acceleration and suggest that the shock is too weak to accelerate electrons from the intracluster medium.

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A. Wilber, M. Bruggen, A. Bonafede, et. al.
Wed, 21 Feb 18

Comments: 11 pages, 9 figures, accepted to MNRAS on February 13, 2018

Probing sub-GeV Dark Matter-Baryon Scattering with Cosmological Observables [CEA]

We derive new limits on the elastic scattering cross-section between baryons and dark matter using Cosmic Microwave Background data from the Planck satellite and measurements of the Lyman-alpha forest flux power spectrum from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our analysis addresses generic cross sections of the form $\sigma \propto v^n$, where v is the dark matter-baryon relative velocity, allowing for constraints on the cross section independent of specific particle physics models. We include high-$\ell$ polarization data from Planck in our analysis, significantly improving results for $n\leq-2$ scenarios due to the direct influence of dark matter-baryon scattering on velocity perturbations. We apply a more careful treatment of dark matter thermal evolution than previously done, allowing us to extend our constraints down to dark matter masses of ~MeV. We show in this work that cosmological probes are complementary to current direct detection and astrophysical searches.

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W. Xu, C. Dvorkin and A. Chael
Wed, 21 Feb 18

Comments: 14 pages, 12 figures

DarkSide-50 532-day Dark Matter Search with Low-Radioactivity Argon [CEA]

The DarkSide-50 direct-detection dark matter experiment is a dual-phase argon time projection chamber operating at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. This paper reports on the blind analysis and spin-independent dark matter-nucleon coupling results from a 532.4 live-days exposure, using a target of low-radioactivity argon extracted from underground sources. The background-free result in the dark matter selection box gave no evidence for dark matter. The present blind analysis sets a 90% C.L. upper limit on the dark matter-nucleon spin-independent cross section of 1.1E-44 cm^2 (3.8E-44 cm^2, 3.4E-43 cm^2) for a WIMP mass of 100 GeV/c^2 (1 TeV/c^2, 10 TeV/c^2).

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DarkSide. Collaboration, P. Agnes, I. Albuquerque, et. al.
Wed, 21 Feb 18

Comments: N/A

Primordial black holes and uncertainties on choice of window function [CEA]

Primordial black holes (PBHs) can be produced by the perturbations which exit the horizon during inflationary phase. While inflation models predict the power spectrum of the perturbations in Fourier space, the PBH abundance depends on the probability distribution function (PDF) of density perturbations in real space. In order to estimate the PBH abundance in a given inflation model, we must relate the power spectrum in Fourier space to the PDF in real space by coarse-graining the perturbations with a window function. However, there are uncertainties on what window function should be used, which could change the relation between the PBH abundance and the power spectrum. This is particularly important in considering PBHs with mass $30 M_\odot$ which account for the LIGO events because the required power spectrum is severely constrained by the observations. In this paper, we investigate how large influence the uncertainties on the choice of a window function have over the power spectrum required for LIGO PBHs. As a result, it is found that the uncertainties most significantly affect the prediction for the stochastic gravitational waves (GWs) induced by the second order effect of the perturbations. In particular, the pulsar timing array constraints on the produced GWs could disappear for the real-space top-hat window function.

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K. Ando, K. Inomata and M. Kawasaki
Tue, 20 Feb 18

Comments: 10 pages, 8 figures