Viscous Warm Inflation: Hamilton-Jacobi formalism [CEA]

Using Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, The scenario of warm inflation with viscous pressure is considered. The formalism gives a way of computing the slow-rolling parameters without extra approximation, and it is well-known as a powerful method in cold inflation. The model is studied in detail for three different cases of dissipation and bulk viscous pressure coefficients. In the first case where both coefficients are taken as a constant, it is shown that the case could not portray warm inflationary scenario compatible with observational data even it is possible to restrict the model parameters. For other cases, the results shows that the model could properly predicts the perturbation parameters in which they stay in perfect agreement with Planck data. As a further argument, $r-n_s$ and $\alpha_s-n_s$ are drown that show the required result could stand in acceptable area expressing a compatibility with observational data.

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L. Akhtari, A. Mohammadi, K. Sayar, et. al.
Tue, 17 Oct 17

Comments: 20 pages, 11 figures

Comparison of the linear bias models in the light of the Dark Energy Survey [CEA]

The evolution of the linear and scale independent bias, based on the most popular dark matter bias models within the $\Lambda$CDM cosmology, is confronted to that of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs). Applying a $\chi^2$ minimization procedure between models and data we find that all the considered linear bias models reproduce well the LRG bias data. The differences among the bias models are absorbed in the predicted mass of the dark-matter halo in which LRGs live and which ranges between $\sim 8 \times 10^{12} h^{-1} M_{\odot}$ and $2.3 \times 10^{13} h^{-1} M_{\odot}$, for the different models. Similar results,as far as the DM halo mass are concerned, are found by confronting the theoretical angular clustering models, which also include the evolution of bias, and the corresponding 2SLAQ LRG clustering. This analysis provided also a value of $\Omega_{m}=0.30\pm 0.01$, which is in excellent agreement with recent joint analyses of different cosmological probes and the reanalysis of the Planck data.

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A. Papageorgiou, S. Basilakos and M. Plionis
Tue, 17 Oct 17

Comments: 10 pages in free style, 5 figures, comments are welcome

Cosmological constraints and comparison of viable $f(R)$ models [CEA]

In this paper we present cosmological constraints on several well known $f(R)$ models, but also on a new class of models that are variants of the Hu-Sawicki one of the form $f(R)=R-\frac{2\Lambda}{1+b\;y(R,\Lambda)}$, that interpolate between the cosmological constant model and a matter dominated universe for different values of the parameter $b$, usually expected to be small for viable models and which in practice measures the deviation from General Relativity. We use the latest growth rate, Cosmic Microwave Background, Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, Supernovae type Ia and Hubble parameter data to place stringent constraints on the models and to compare them to the cosmological constant model but also other viable $f(R)$ models such as the Starobinsky or the degenerate hypergeometric models. We find that this kind of Hu-Sawicki variant parameterizations are in general compatible with the currently available data and can provide useful toy models to explore the available functional space of $f(R)$ models, something very useful with the current and upcoming surveys that will test deviations from General Relativity.

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J. Perez-Romero and S. Nesseris
Tue, 17 Oct 17

Comments: 12 pages, 5 figures, 6 tables. Comments welcome

Dark Energy after GW170817 [CEA]

Multi-messenger gravitational wave (GW) astronomy has commenced with the detection of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 and its associated electromagnetic counterparts. The almost coincident observation of the GW and the gamma ray burst GRB170817A constrain the speed of GWs at the level of $|c_g/c-1|\leq4.5\cdot10^{-16}$. We use this result to probe the nature of dark energy (DE), showing that scalar-tensor theories with derivative interactions with the curvature are highly disfavored. As an example we consider the case of Galileons, a well motivated gravity theory with viable cosmology, which predicts a variable GW speed at low redshift, and is hence strongly ruled out by GW170817. Our result essentially eliminates any cosmological application of these DE models and, in general, of quartic and quintic Horndeski and most beyond Horndeski theories. We identify the surviving scalar-tensor models and, in particular, present specific beyond Horndeski theories avoiding this constraint. The viable scenarios are either conformally equivalent to theories in which $c_g=c$ or rely on cancellations of the anomalous GW speed that are valid on arbitrary backgrounds. Our conclusions can be extended to any other gravity theory predicting an anomalous GW propagation speed such as Einstein-Aether, Ho\v{r}ava gravity, Generalized Proca, TeVeS and other MOND-like gravities.

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J. Ezquiaga and M. Zumalacarregui
Tue, 17 Oct 17

Comments: 9 pages, 3 figures

Density split statistics: Cosmological constraints from counts and lensing in cells in DES Y1 and SDSS [CEA]

We derive cosmological constraints from the probability distribution function (PDF) of evolved large-scale matter density fluctuations. We do this by splitting lines of sight by density based on their count of tracer galaxies, and by measuring both gravitational shear around and counts-in-cells in overdense and underdense lines of sight, in Dark Energy Survey (DES) First Year and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data. Our analysis uses a perturbation theory model (see companion paper Friedrich at al.) and is validated using N-body simulation realizations and log-normal mocks. It allows us to constrain cosmology, bias and stochasticity of galaxies w.r.t. matter density and, in addition, the skewness of the matter density field.
From a Bayesian model comparison, we find that the data weakly prefer a connection of galaxies and matter that is stochastic beyond Poisson fluctuations on <=20 arcmin angular smoothing scale. The two stochasticity models we fit yield DES constraints on the matter density $\Omega_m=0.26^{+0.04}{-0.03}$ and $\Omega_m=0.28^{+0.05}{-0.04}$ that are consistent with each other. These values also agree with the DES analysis of galaxy and shear two-point functions (3x2pt) that only uses second moments of the PDF. Constraints on $\sigma_8$ are model dependent ($\sigma_8=0.97^{+0.07}{-0.06}$ and $0.80^{+0.06}{-0.07}$ for the two stochasticity models), but consistent with each other and with the 3x2pt results if stochasticity is at the low end of the posterior range.
As an additional test of gravity, counts and lensing in cells allow to compare the skewness $S_3$ of the matter density PDF to its LCDM prediction. We find no evidence of excess skewness in any model or data set, with better than 25 per cent relative precision in the skewness estimate from DES alone.

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D. Gruen, O. Friedrich, E. Krause, et. al.
Tue, 17 Oct 17

Comments: 32 pages, 22 pictures; comments welcome

A gravitational-wave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant [CEA]

The detection of GW170817 in both gravitational waves and electromagnetic waves heralds the age of gravitational-wave multi-messenger astronomy. On 17 August 2017 the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors observed GW170817, a strong signal from the merger of a binary neutron-star system. Less than 2 seconds after the merger, a gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) was detected within a region of the sky consistent with the LIGO-Virgo-derived location of the gravitational-wave source. This sky region was subsequently observed by optical astronomy facilities, resulting in the identification of an optical transient signal within $\sim 10$ arcsec of the galaxy NGC 4993. These multi-messenger observations allow us to use GW170817 as a standard siren, the gravitational-wave analog of an astronomical standard candle, to measure the Hubble constant. This quantity, which represents the local expansion rate of the Universe, sets the overall scale of the Universe and is of fundamental importance to cosmology. Our measurement combines the distance to the source inferred purely from the gravitational-wave signal with the recession velocity inferred from measurements of the redshift using electromagnetic data. This approach does not require any form of cosmic “distance ladder;” the gravitational wave analysis can be used to estimate the luminosity distance out to cosmological scales directly, without the use of intermediate astronomical distance measurements. We determine the Hubble constant to be $70.0^{+12.0}_{-8.0} \, \mathrm{km} \, \mathrm{s}^{-1} \, \mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}$ (maximum a posteriori and 68% credible interval). This is consistent with existing measurements, while being completely independent of them. Additional standard-siren measurements from future gravitational-wave sources will provide precision constraints of this important cosmological parameter.

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B. Abbott, R. Abbott, T. Abbott, et. al.
Tue, 17 Oct 17

Comments: 26 pages, 5 figures, Nature in press. For more information see this https URL

Localization accuracy of compact binary coalescences detected by the third-generation gravitational-wave detectors and implication for cosmology [CEA]

We use the Fisher information matrix to investigate the angular resolution and luminosity distance uncertainty for coalescing binary neutron stars (BNSs) and neutron star-black hole binaries (NSBHs) detected by the third-generation (3G) gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. Our study focuses on an individual 3G detector and a network of up to four 3G detectors at different locations including the US, Europe, China and Australia for the proposed Einstein Telescope (ET) and Cosmic Explorer (CE) detectors and an ideal detector with a flat low-frequency sensitivity. We find that, due to the effect of the Earth’s rotation, a time-dependent antenna beam-pattern function can help better localize BNS and NSBH sources, especially those edge-on ones. We use numerical simulations to study the localization for a random sample of (1.4+1.4) ${\rm M}\odot$ BNSs and low-mass NSBHs of (1.4+10) ${\rm M}\odot$ at various redshifts. The medium angular resolution for a network of two CE detectors in the US and Europe respectively is around 20 deg$^2$ at $z=0.2$ for our BNS and NSBH samples. A 20 deg$^2$ medium angular resolution can be achieved for a network of two ET-D detectors at a much higher redshift of $z=0.5$ than for two CEs. We discuss the implications of our results to multi-messenger astronomy and in particular to using GW sources as independent tools to constrain the cosmological parameters. We find that in general, if 10 BNSs or NSBHs at $z=0.1$ with known redshifts are detected with $\le 50\%$ distance uncertainty by 3G networks consisting of two ET-like detectors, the Hubble constant $H_0$ can be measured with an accuracy of $0.9\%$. If 1000 face-on BNSs at $z<2$ are detected with known redshifts, we are able to constrain the equation-of-state parameters of dark energy $w_0$ and $w_a$ with accuracies $\Delta w_0=0.03$ and $\Delta w_a=0.2$, respectively.(Abridged version).

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W. Zhao and L. Wen
Tue, 17 Oct 17

Comments: 34 pages, 25 figs, 3 tables