Viscosity, pressure, and support of the gas in simulations of merging cool-core clusters [CEA]

Major mergers are considered to be a significant source of turbulence in clusters. We performed a numerical simulation of a major merger event using nested-grid initial conditions, adaptive mesh refinement, radiative cooling of primordial gas, and a homogeneous ultraviolet background. By calculating the microscopic viscosity on the basis of various theoretical assumptions and estimating the Kolmogorov length from the turbulent dissipation rate computed with a subgrid-scale model, we are able to demonstrate that most of the warm-hot intergalactic medium can sustain a fully turbulent state only if the magnetic suppression of the viscosity is considerable. Accepting this as premise, it turns out that ratios of turbulent and thermal quantities change only little in the course of the merger. This confirms the tight correlations between the mean thermal and non-thermal energy content for large samples of clusters in earlier studies, which can be interpreted as second self-similarity on top of the self-similarity for different halo masses. Another long-standing question is how and to which extent turbulence contributes to the support of the gas against gravity. From a global perspective, the ratio of turbulent and thermal pressures is significant for the clusters in our simulation. On the other hand, a local measure is provided by the compression rate, i.e. the growth rate of the divergence of the flow. Particularly for the intracluster medium, we find that the dominant contribution against gravity comes from thermal pressure, while compressible turbulence effectively counteracts the support. For this reason it appears to be too simplistic to consider turbulence merely as an effective enhancement of thermal energy.

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W. Schmidt, C. Byrohl, J. Engels, et. al.
Mon, 22 May 17

Comments: 16 pages, 16 figures, accepted for publication by MNRAS

The first-year shear catalog of the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam SSP Survey [CEA]

We present and characterize the catalog of galaxy shape measurements that will be used for cosmological weak lensing measurements in the Wide layer of the first year of the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey. The catalog covers an area of 136.9 deg$^2$ split into six fields, with a mean $i$-band seeing of 0.58 arcsec and $5\sigma$ point-source depth of $i\sim 26$. Given conservative galaxy selection criteria for first year science, the depth and excellent image quality results in unweighted and weighted source number densities of 24.6 and 21.8 arcmin$^{-2}$, respectively. Point-spread function (PSF) modeling is carried out on individual exposures, while galaxy shapes are measured on a linear coaddition. We define the requirements for cosmological weak lensing science with this catalog, characterize potential systematics in the catalog using a series of internal null tests for problems with PSF modeling, shear estimation, and other aspects of the image processing, and describe systematics tests using two different sets of image simulations. Finally, we discuss the dominant systematics and the planned algorithmic changes to reduce them in future data reductions.

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R. Mandelbaum, H. Miyatake, T. Hamana, et. al.
Mon, 22 May 17

Comments: 23 figures, 4 tables, submitted to PASJ

New fitting formula for cosmic non-linear density distribution [CEA]

We have measured the probability distribution function (PDF) of cosmic matter density field from a suite of N-body simulations. We propose the generalized normal distribution of version 2 (Nv2) as an alternative fitting formula to the well-known log-normal distribution. We find that Nv2 provides significantly better fit than the log-normal distribution for all smoothing radii (2, 5, 10, 25 [Mpc/h]) that we studied. The improvement is substantial in the underdense regions. The development of non- Gaissianities in the cosmic matter density field is captured by continuous evolution of the skewness and shifts parameters of the Nv2 distribution. We present the redshift evolution of these parameters for aforementioned smoothing radii and various background cosmology models. All the PDFs measured from large and high-resolution N-body simulations that we use in this study can be obtained from a Web site at

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J. Shin, J. Kim, C. Pichon, et. al.
Mon, 22 May 17

Comments: Accepted for publication in ApJ

Bias to CMB Lensing Reconstruction from Temperature Anisotropies due to Large-Scale Galaxy Motions [CEA]

Gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is expected to be amongst the most powerful cosmological tools for ongoing and upcoming CMB experiments. In this work, we investigate a bias to CMB lensing reconstruction from temperature anisotropies due to the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (kSZ) effect, that is, the Doppler shift of CMB photons induced by Compton-scattering off moving electrons. The kSZ signal yields biases due to both its own intrinsic non-Gaussianity and its non-zero cross-correlation with the CMB lensing field (and other fields that trace the large-scale structure). This kSZ-induced bias affects both the CMB lensing auto-power spectrum and its cross-correlation with low-redshift tracers. Furthermore, it cannot be removed by multifrequency foreground separation techniques because the kSZ effect preserves the blackbody spectrum of the CMB. While statistically negligible for current datasets, we show that it will be important for upcoming surveys, and failure to account for it can lead to large biases in constraints on neutrino masses or the properties of dark energy. For a Stage 4 CMB experiment, the bias can be as large as $\approx$ 15% or 12% in cross-correlation with LSST galaxy lensing convergence or galaxy overdensity maps, respectively, when the maximum temperature multipole used in the reconstruction is $\ell_{\rm max} = 4000$, and about half of that when $\ell_{\rm max} = 3000$. Similarly, we find that the CMB lensing auto-power spectrum can be biased by nearly 10%, although our numerical calculation includes only the expected dominant term. These biases are many times larger than the expected statistical errors. Reducing $\ell_{\rm max}$ can significantly mitigate the bias at the cost of a decrease in the overall lensing reconstruction signal-to-noise. Polarization-only reconstruction may be the most robust mitigation strategy.

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S. Ferraro and J. Hill
Mon, 22 May 17

Comments: 19 pages, 5 figures, comments are welcome

Two- and three-dimensional wide-field weak lensing mass maps from the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program S16A data [CEA]

We present wide-field (167 deg$^2$) weak lensing mass maps from the Hyper Supreme-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP). We compare these weak lensing based dark matter maps with maps of the distribution of the stellar mass associated with luminous red galaxies. We find a strong correlation between these two maps with a correlation coefficient of $\rho=0.54\pm0.03$ (for a smoothing size of $8’$). This correlation is detected even with a smaller smoothing scale of $2’$ ($\rho=0.34\pm 0.01$). This detection is made uniquely possible because of the high source density of the HSC-SSP weak lensing survey ($\bar{n}\sim 25$ arcmin$^{-2}$). We also present a variety of tests to demonstrate that our maps are not significantly affected by systematic effects. By using the photometric redshift information associated with source galaxies, we reconstruct a three-dimensional mass map. This three-dimensional mass map is also found to correlate with the three-dimensional galaxy mass map. Cross-correlation tests presented in this paper demonstrate that the HSC-SSP weak lensing mass maps are ready for further science analyses.

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M. Oguri, S. Miyazaki, C. Hikage, et. al.
Mon, 22 May 17

Comments: 13 pages, 13 figures

Multiwavelength study of X-ray Luminous Clusters in the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program S16A field [CEA]

We present a joint X-ray, optical and weak-lensing analysis for X-ray luminous galaxy clusters selected from the MCXC cluster catalog in the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP) survey field with S16A data. We measure hydrostatic equilibrium (H.E.) masses using {\it XMM-Newton} data for a sample of four MCXC clusters in the current coverage area. We additionally analyze a non-MCXC cluster associated with one MCXC cluster to calibrate the X-ray analysis. We show that H.E. masses for the MCXC clusters are correlated with cluster richness from the CAMIRA catalog (Oguri et al. 2017), while that for the non-MCXC cluster deviates from the scaling relation. The mass normalization of the relationship between the cluster richness and H.E. mass is compatible with one inferred by matching CAMIRA cluster abundance with a theoretical halo mass function. The mean gas mass fraction based on H.E. masses for the MCXC clusters is $\langle f_{\rm gas} \rangle =0.126\pm0.010$ at spherical overdensity $\Delta=500$, which is $\sim80-90$ percent of the cosmic mean baryon fraction, $\Omega_b/\Omega_m$, measured by cosmic microwave background experiments. We find that the mean baryon fraction estimated from X-ray and HSC-SSP optical data is comparable to $\Omega_b/\Omega_m$. A weak-lensing shear catalog of background galaxies, combined with photometric redshifts, is currently available only for three clusters in our sample. Hydrostatic equilibrium masses roughly agree with weak-lensing masses, albeit with large uncertainty. This study demonstrates that the multiwavelength study using X-ray, HSC-SSP optical and weak lensing data will enable us to understand cluster physics and utilize cluster-based cosmology.

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K. Miyaoka, N. Okabe, T. Kitaguchi, et. al.
Mon, 22 May 17

Comments: 16 pages, 11 figures, Full resolution paper is available from this http URL

Massive and supermassive black holes in the contemporary and early universe and the new problems of cosmology and astrophysics [CEA]

This is the translation into English of the introduction, conclusion, and the list of references of the review on massive primordial black holes, which is submitted in Russian to Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk (Physics-Uspekhi). If accepted, this review is translated into English by the Journal and published in Russian and a little later in English.
The review concerns the recent astronomical data which show that massive primordial black holes play much more significant role in the universe than it was previously believed. This is true both for the the contemporary and the early universe at the red-shifts about 10. The mechanism, proposed in 1993, of primordial creation of heavy and superheavy black holes in the very early universe is discussed. This mechanism predicts the log-normal mass spectrum of the primordial black holes, which became very popular during the last couple of years. The proposed mechanism presents a natural explanation of a large amount of the recent observational data, which do not fit the standard cosmology and astrophysics.

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A. Dolgov
Mon, 22 May 17

Comments: 11 pages, no figures