We model the thermal states of both isolated neutron stars and accreting neutron stars in X-ray transients in quiescence and confront them with observations. We use an equation of state and superfluid baryon gaps, which are consistently calculated. We conclude that the direct Urca process is required to be consistent with low-luminous accreting neutron stars. In addition, proton superfluidity and sufficiently weak neutron superfluidity are necessary to explain the cooling of middle-aged neutron stars and to obtain a realistic distribution of neutron star masses.
M. Fortin, G. Taranto, G. Burgio, et. al.
Fri, 15 Sep 17