The Galactic Diffuse X-ray Emission (GDXE) in the Milky Way Galaxy is spatially and spectrally decomposed into the Galactic Center X-ray Emission (GCXE), the Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission (GRXE) and the Galactic Bulge X-ray Emission (GBXE). The X-ray spectra of the GDXE are characterized by the strong K-shell lines of the highly ionized atoms, the brightest are the K-shell transition (principal quantum number transition of $n=2\rightarrow1$) of neutral iron (SXV-He$\alpha$), He-like iron (FeXXV-He$\alpha$) and He-like sulfur (SXV-He$\alpha$) lines. Accordingly, the GDXE is composed of a high-temperature plasma of $\sim$7 keV (HTP) and a low-temperature plasma of $\sim$1 keV (LTP), which emit the FeXXV-He$\alpha$ and SXV-He$\alpha$ lines, respectively. The FeI-K$\alpha$ line is emitted from nearly neutral irons, and hence the third component of the GDXE is a Cool Gas (CG). The FeI-K$\alpha$ distribution in the GCXE region is clumpy (FeI-K$\alpha$ clump), associated with giant molecular cloud (MC) complexes, Sagittarius A, B, C, D and E, in the central molecular zone. The origin of the FeI-K$\alpha$ clumps is the fluorescence and Thomson scattering from the MCs irradiated by past big flares of the super massive black hole Sagittarius A$^*$. The scale heights and equivalent widths of the FeI-K$\alpha$, FeXXV-He$\alpha$, and FeXXVI-Ly$\alpha$ ($n=2\rightarrow1$ transition of H-like iron) lines are different among the GCXE, GBXE and GRXE. Therefore the structure and origin are separately examined. This paper overviews the research history and the present understandings of the GDXE, in particular focus on the origin of the HTP and CG in the GCXE.
Mon, 21 Aug 17
Comments: 46 pages, 9 figures, 15 tables, accepted to PASJ, but some figures are missing from the original PASJ paper (24 figures) due to the memory limit of figures