Pre-supernova mixing in CEMP-no source stars [SSA]

Context. CEMP-no stars are long-lived low-mass stars with a very low iron content, overabundances of carbon and no or minor signs for the presence of s- or r-elements. Although their origin is still a matter of debate, they are often considered as being made of a material ejected by a previous stellar generation (source stars). Aims. We place constraints on the source stars from the observed abundance data of CEMP-no stars. Methods. We computed source star models of 20, 32, and 60 M${\odot}$ at Z = 10$^{-5}$ with and without fast rotation. For each model we also computed a case with a late mixing event occurring between the hydrogen and helium-burning shell $\sim$ 200 yr before the end of the evolution. This creates a partially CNO-processed zone in the source star. We use the 12C/13C and C/N ratios observed on CEMP-no stars to put constraints on the possible source stars (mass, late mixing or not). Then, we inspect more closely the abundance data of six CEMP-no stars and select their preferred source star(s). Results. Four out of the six CEMP-no stars studied cannot be explained without the late mixing process in the source star. Two of them show nucleosynthetic signatures of a progressive mixing (due e.g. to rotation) in the source star. We also show that a 20 M${\odot}$ source star is preferred compared to one of 60 M${\odot}$ and that likely only the outer layers of the source stars were expelled to reproduce the observed 12C/13C. Conclusions. The results suggest that (1) a late mixing process could operate in some source stars, (2) a progressive mixing, possibly achieved by fast rotation, is at work in several source stars, (3) $\sim$ 20 M${\odot}$ source stars are preferred compared to $\sim$ 60 M$_{\odot}$ ones, and (4) the source star might have preferentially experienced a low energetic supernova with large fallback.

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A. Choplin, S. Ekstrom, G. Meynet, et. al.
Mon, 19 Jun 17

Comments: 17 pages, 12 figures, Accepted for publication in A&A