We present the results of a large-scale survey of the very dense gas in the Perseus molecular cloud using HCO+ and HCN (J = 4 – 3) transitions. We have used this emission to trace the structure and kinematics of gas found in pre- and protostellar cores, as well as in outflows. We compare the HCO+/HCN data, highlighting regions where there is a marked discrepancy in the spectra of the two emission lines. We use the HCO+ to identify positively protostellar outflows and their driving sources, and present a statistical analysis of the outflow properties that we derive from this tracer. We find that the relations we calculate between the HCO+ outflow driving force and the Menv and Lbol of the driving source are comparable to those obtained from similar outflow analyses using 12CO, indicating that the two molecules give reliable estimates of outflow properties. We also compare the HCO+ and the HCN in the outflows, and find that the HCN traces only the most energetic outflows, the majority of which are driven by young Class 0 sources. We analyse the abundances of HCN and HCO+ in the particular case of the IRAS 2A outflows, and find that the HCN is much more enhanced than the HCO+ in the outflow lobes. We suggest that this is indicative of shock-enhancement of HCN along the length of the outflow; this process is not so evident for HCO+, which is largely confined to the outflow base.
S. Walker-Smith, J. Richer, J. Buckle, et. al.
Thu, 13 Mar 14